An Introduction To Formal Logic Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Peter Smith
Publisher :
Release : 2020
Page : 420
Category : Logic
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Peter Smith
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2003-11-06
Page : 357
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 9780521008044
Description :


Table of contents


Author : Peter Smith
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2003-11-06
Page : 366
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 1107494583
Description :


Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for evaluating arguments translated into these languages, concentrating on the easily comprehensible 'tree' method. His discussion is richly illustrated with worked examples and exercises. A distinctive feature is that, alongside the formal work, there is illuminating philosophical commentary. This book will make an ideal text for a first logic course, and will provide a firm basis for further work in formal and philosophical logic.


Author : P. D. Magnus
Publisher : State University of New York Oer Services
Release : 2018-07-25
Page : 156
Category : Logic
ISBN 13 : 9781641760263
Description :


"Forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading. This books treats symbolization, formal semantics, and proof theory for each language. The discussion of formal semantics is more direct than in many introductory texts. Although forall x does not contain proofs of soundness and completeness, it lays the groundwork for understanding why these are things that need to be proven. Throughout the book, I have tried to highlight the choices involved in developing sentential and predicate logic. Students should realize that these two are not the only possible formal languages. In translating to a formal language, we simplify and profit in clarity. The simplification comes at a cost, and different formal languages are suited to translating different parts of natural language. The book is designed to provide a semester's worth of material for an introductory college course. It would be possible to use the book only for sentential logic, by skipping chapters 4-5 and parts of chapter 6"--Open Textbook Library.


Author : Richard L Epstein
Publisher :
Release : 2020-07-03
Page : 232
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781938421525
Description :


A book that makes sense of formal logic. Each step in the development of the formal system is clearly motivated, with the relationship of formal logic to ordinary reasoning central. Hundreds of examples of formalizing based on criteria for what counts as a good formalization. More than 500 exercises with answers.


Author : Peter Alexander
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-12-04
Page : 286
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1000735486
Description :


Originally published in 1969. This book is for undergraduates whether specializing in philosophy or not. It assumes no previous knowledge of logic but aims to show how logical notions arise from, or are abstracted from, everyday discourse, whether technical or non-technical. It sets out a knowledge of principles and, while not historical, gives an account of the reasons for which modern systems have emerged from the traditional syllogistic logic, demonstrating how certain central ideas have developed. The text explains the connections between everyday reasoning and formal logic and works up to a brief sketch of systems of propositional calculus and predicate-calculus, using both the axiomatic method and the method of natural deduction. It provides a self-contained introduction but for those who intend to study the subject further it contains many suggestions and a sound basis for more advanced study.


Author : Colin Howson
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2005-10-11
Page : 224
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 113478550X
Description :


First published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Author : Ernest Lepore
Sam Cumming
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-08-24
Page : 427
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1405196734
Description :


This book shifts introductory logic from the traditional emphasis on proofs to the symbolization of arguments.


Author : Fred Sommers
George Englebretsen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-03-02
Page : 280
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1351958607
Description :


An Invitation to Formal Reasoning introduces the discipline of formal logic by means of a powerful new system formulated by Fred Sommers. This system, term logic, is different in a number of ways from the standard system employed in modern logic; most striking is its greater simplicity and naturalness. Based on a radically different theory of logical syntax than the one Frege used when initiating modern mathematical logic in the 19th Century, term logic borrows insights from Aristotle's syllogistic, Scholastic logicians, Leibniz, and the 19th century British algebraists. Term logic takes its syntax directly from natural language, construing statements as combinations of pairs of terms, where complex terms are taken to have the same syntax as statements. Whereas standard logic requires extensive 'translation' from natural language to symbolic language, term logic requires only 'transcription' into the symbolic language. Its naturalness is the result of its ability to stay close to the forms of sentences usually found in every day discourse. Written by the founders of the term logic approach, An Invitation to Formal Reasoning is a unique introduction and exploration of this new system, offering numerous exercises and examples throughout the text. Summarising the standard system of mathematical logic to set term logic in context, and showing how the two systems compare, this book presents an alternative approach to standard modern logic for those studying formal logic, philosophy of language or computer theory. Fred Sommers is Professor Emeritus, Brandeis University, USA; George Englebretsen is Professor of Philosophy, Bishop's University, Canada.


Author : Samuel Guttenplan
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 1997-05-28
Page : 448
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9781557869883
Description :


With the same intellectual goals as the first edition, this innovative introductory logic textbook explores the relationship between natural language and logic, motivating the student to acquire skills and techniques of formal logic. This new and revised edition includes substantial additions which make the text even more useful to students and instructors alike. Central to these changes is an Appendix, 'How to Learn Logic', which takes the student through fourteen compact and sharply directed lessons with exercises and answers.


Author : Langer
Publisher : Courier Corporation
Release : 1967-01-01
Page : 384
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 9780486601649
Description :


Famous classic has introduced countless readers to symbolic logic with its thorough and precise exposition. Starts with simple symbols and conventions and concludes with the Boole-Schroeder and Russell-Whitehead systems. No special knowledge of mathematics necessary. "One of the clearest and simplest introductions to a subject which is very much alive." — Mathematics Gazette.


Author : Joelle Hodge
Aaron Larsen
Publisher :
Release : 2010-03
Page : 324
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
ISBN 13 : 9781600510335
Description :


Provides an introduction to formal, deductive logic using Socratic dialogue and discussion.


Author : Russell Marcus
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2018
Page : 504
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9780190861780
Description :


Rigorous yet intuitive and accessible, Introduction to Formal Logic provides a focused, "nuts-and-bolts" introduction to formal deductive logic that covers syntax, semantics, translation, and natural deduction for propositional and predicate logics. For instructors who want to go beyond a basic introduction to explore the connection between formal logic techniques and philosophy, Oxford also publishes Introduction to Formal Logic with Philosophical Applications, an extended version of this text that incorporates two chapters of stand-alone essays on logic and its application in philosophy and beyond.


Author : P. T. Geach
B. Geach
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 1980-04-30
Page : 335
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9780520038479
Description :


"This is a significant and ofren rather demanding collection of essays. It is an anthology purring together the uncollected works of an important twentieth-century philosopher. Many of the articles treat one or another of the more important issues considered by analytic philosophers during the last quarter-century. Of significant importance to philosophers interested in researching the many topics contained in Logic Matters is the inclusion in this anthology of a rather extensive eight-page name-topic index."--Thomist "The papers are arranged by topic: Historical Essays, Traditional Logic, Theory of Reference and Syntax, Intentionality, Quotation and Semantics, Set Theory, Identity Theory, Assertion, Imperatives and Practical Reasoning, Logic in Metaphysics and Theology. The broad range of issues that have engaged Geach's complex and systematic reasoning is impressive. In addition to classical logic, topics in ethics, ontology, and even the logic of religious dogmas are tackled .... the work in this collection is more brilliant and ingenious than it is difficult and demanding."--Philosophy of Science "Geach displays his mastery of applying logical techniques and concepts to philosophical questions. Compared with most works in philosophical logic this book is remarkable for its range of topics. Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Russell, Wittgenstein, and Quine all figure prominently. Geach's style is remarkably lively considering the rightly argued matter. Although some of the articles treat rather technical questions in mathematical logic, most are accessible to philosophers with modest backgrounds in logic." --Choice


Author : Jc Beall
Shay Allen Logan
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2017-04-20
Page : 288
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1317528611
Description :


Logic: The Basics is an accessible introduction to several core areas of logic. The first part of the book features a self-contained introduction to the standard topics in classical logic, such as: · mathematical preliminaries · propositional logic · quantified logic (first monadic, then polyadic) · English and standard ‘symbolic translations’ · tableau procedures. Alongside comprehensive coverage of the standard topics, this thoroughly revised second edition also introduces several philosophically important nonclassical logics, free logics, and modal logics, and gives the reader an idea of how they can take their knowledge further. With its wealth of exercises (solutions available in the encyclopedic online supplement), Logic: The Basics is a useful textbook for courses ranging from the introductory level to the early graduate level, and also as a reference for students and researchers in philosophical logic.


Author : Richard E. Hodel
Publisher : Courier Corporation
Release : 2013
Page : 491
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 0486497852
Description :


This comprehensive overview ofmathematical logic is designedprimarily for advanced undergraduatesand graduate studentsof mathematics. The treatmentalso contains much of interest toadvanced students in computerscience and philosophy. Topics include propositional logic;first-order languages and logic; incompleteness, undecidability,and indefinability; recursive functions; computability;and Hilbert’s Tenth Problem.Reprint of the PWS Publishing Company, Boston, 1995edition.


Author : Steven Gimbel
Publisher :
Release : 2016-02-24
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781629972688
Description :



Author : Rudolf Carnap
Publisher : Courier Corporation
Release : 2012-07-12
Page : 272
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 048614349X
Description :


Clear, comprehensive, and rigorous treatment develops the subject from elementary concepts to the construction and analysis of relatively complex logical languages. Hundreds of problems, examples, and exercises. 1958 edition.


Author : Michael Fisher
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-03-16
Page : 368
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 9781119991465
Description :


The name "temporal logic" may sound complex and daunting; but while they describe potentially complex scenarios, temporal logics are often based on a few simple, and fundamental, concepts - highlighted in this book. An Introduction to Practical Formal Methods Using Temporal Logic provides an introduction to formal methods based on temporal logic, for developing and testing complex computational systems. These methods are supported by many well-developed tools, techniques and results that can be applied to a wide range of systems. Fisher begins with a full introduction to the subject, covering the basics of temporal logic and using a variety of examples, exercises and pointers to more advanced work to help clarify and illustrate the topics discussed. He goes on to describe how this logic can be used to specify a variety of computational systems, looking at issues of linking specifications, concurrency, communication and composition ability. He then analyses temporal specification techniques such as deductive verification, algorithmic verification, and direct execution to develop and verify computational systems. The final chapter on case studies analyses the potential problems that can occur in a range of engineering applications in the areas of robotics, railway signalling, hardware design, ubiquitous computing, intelligent agents, and information security, and explains how temporal logic can improve their accuracy and reliability. Models temporal notions and uses them to analyze computational systems Provides a broad approach to temporal logic across many formal methods - including specification, verification and implementation Introduces and explains freely available tools based on temporal logics and shows how these can be applied Presents exercises and pointers to further study in each chapter, as well as an accompanying website providing links to additional systems based upon temporal logic as well as additional material related to the book.


Author : Paul A. Gregory
Publisher : Broadview Press
Release : 2017-04-30
Page : 400
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1770485945
Description :


Formal Logic is an undergraduate text suitable for introductory, intermediate, and advanced courses in symbolic logic. The book’s nine chapters offer thorough coverage of truth-functional and quantificational logic, as well as the basics of more advanced topics such as set theory and modal logic. Complex ideas are explained in plain language that doesn’t presuppose any background in logic or mathematics, and derivation strategies are illustrated with numerous examples. Translations, tables, trees, natural deduction, and simple meta-proofs are taught through over 400 exercises. A companion website offers supplemental practice software and tutorial videos.