Antarctic Biology In A Global Context Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : A. H. L. Huiskes
Publisher :
Release : 2003
Page : 338
Category : Animal ecology
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Alex D. Rogers
Nadine M. Johnston
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-02-28
Page : 756
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1444347225
Description :


Since its discovery Antarctica has held a deep fascination for biologists. Extreme environmental conditions, seasonality and isolation have lead to some of the most striking examples of natural selection and adaptation on Earth. Paradoxically, some of these adaptations may pose constraints on the ability of the Antarctic biota to respond to climate change. Parts of Antarctica are showing some of the largest changes in temperature and other environmental conditions in the world. In this volume, published in association with the Royal Society, leading polar scientists present a synthesis of the latest research on the biological systems in Antarctica, covering organisms from microbes to vertebrate higher predators. This book comes at a time when new technologies and approaches allow the implications of climate change and other direct human impacts on Antarctica to be viewed at a range of scales; across entire regions, whole ecosystems and down to the level of species and variation within their genomes. Chapters address both Antarctic terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and the scientific and management challenges of the future are explored.


Author : Beau Riffenburgh
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2007
Page : 1146
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 0415970245
Description :


Antarctica is the only major part of the Earth's landmass not directly governed by one nation, but under the control of a treaty, with a multitude of acceding nations. This reference brings together large quantities of information on the wide variety of factors, issues, and individuals influencing and relating to the Antarctic.


Author : D.M. Bergstrom
P. Convey
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-06-04
Page : 369
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1402052774
Description :


The Antarctic provides a suite of scenarios useful for investigating the range of climate change effects on terrestrial and limnetic biota. The purpose of the book is to provide, based on the most up to date knowledge, a synthesis of the likely effects of climate change on Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems and, thereby, to contribute to their management and conservation, based on the information.


Author : Susana Castro-Sowinski
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-01-11
Page : 298
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3030027864
Description :


This book provides up-to-date multidisciplinary information regarding microbial physiological groups in terms of their role in the Antarctic ecology. How do microorganisms shape the Antarctic environment? The book presents a thorough overview of the most important physiological microbial groups or microbial systems that shape the Antarctic environment. Each microbial model is described in terms of their physiology and metabolism, and their role in the Antarctic environmental sustainability. The individual chapters prepare readers for understanding the relevance of the microbial models from both an historical perspective, and considering the latest developments. This book will appeal to researchers and teachers interested in the Antarctic science, but also to students who want to understand the role of microbes in the ecology of extreme environments.


Author : Jon Børre Ørbaek
Roland Kallenborn
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-01-10
Page : 434
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3540485147
Description :


The European Arctic and Alpine regions are experiencing large environmental changes. These changes may have socio-economic effects if the changes affect the bioproduction, which form the basis for the marine and terrestrial food chains. This uniquely multidisciplinary book presents the various aspects of contemporary environmental changes in Arctic and Alpine Regions.


Author : Reinhard Pienitz
Marianne S.V. Douglas
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-11-08
Page : 30
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1402021267
Description :


Concerns about the effects of global climate change have focused attention on the vulnerability of circumpolar regions. This book offers a synthesis of the spectrum of techniques available for generating long-term environmental records from circumpolar lakes.


Author :
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-10-05
Page : 576
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0123972930
Description :


Advances in Ecological Research is one of the most successful series in the highly competitive field of ecology. Each volume publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting ecology as widely as in the past, to include all material that contributes to our understanding of the field. Topics in this invaluable series include the physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals, as well as landscape and ecosystem ecology. Advances in Ecological Research is one of the most successful series in the highly competitive field of ecology Each volume publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting ecology as widely as in the past, to include all material that contributes to our understanding of the field


Author : Frank E. Zachos
Jan Christian Habel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-09-15
Page : 546
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9783642209925
Description :


Biodiversity and its conservation are among the main global topics in science and politics and perhaps the major challenge for the present and coming generations. This book written by international experts from different disciplines comprises general chapters on diversity and its measurement, human impacts on biodiversity hotspots on a global scale, human diversity itself and various geographic regions exhibiting high levels of diversity. The areas covered range from genetics and taxonomy to evolutionary biology, biogeography and the social sciences. In addition to the classic hotspots in the tropics, the book also highlights various other ecosystems harbouring unique species communities including coral reefs and the Southern Ocean. The approach taken considers, but is not limited to, the original hotspot definition sensu stricto and presents a chapter introducing the 35th hotspot, the forests of East Australia. While, due to a bias in data availability, the majority of contributions on particular taxa deal with vertebrates and plants, some also deal with the less-studied invertebrates. This book will be essential reading for anyone involved with biodiversity, particularly researchers and practitioners in the fields of conservation biology, ecology and evolution.


Author : Lewis H. Ziska
Jeffrey S. Dukes
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2014-08-29
Page : 368
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1780641648
Description :


This book examines what will happen to global invasive species, including plants, animals and pathogens with current and expected man-made climate change. The effects on distribution, success, spread and impact of invasive species are considered for a series of case studies from a number of countries. This book will be of great value to researchers, policymakers and industry in responding to changing management needs.


Author : Steven Chown
Pierre William Froneman
Publisher : AFRICAN SUN MeDIA
Release : 2008-06-01
Page : 469
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1920109854
Description :


This book provides a modern, synthetic overview of what is known about the structure, functioning and interactions of marine and terrestrial systems at the Prince Edward Islands. Building on more than 50 years of biological, geological, meteorological, and oceanographic research, it demonstrates not only how inextricably linked marine and terrestrial systems at the islands are, but also how global environmental challenges, such as climate change, biological invasions, and over exploitation, are playing out at the regional and local levels in the Southern Ocean.


Author :
Publisher : Stanford University
Release : 2011
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Sea ice is an important driver of climate patterns and polar marine ecosystem dynamics. In particular, primary production by microalgae in sea ice has been postulated as a sink for anthropogenic CO2, and as a critical resource in the life cycle of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, a keystone species. Study of the sea ice ecosystem is difficult at regional and global scales, however, because of the expense and logistical difficulties in accessing such a remote and hostile environment. Consequently, models remain valuable tools for investigations of the spatial and temporal dynamics of sea ice and associated ecology and biogeochemistry. Recent advances in model representations of sea ice have called into question the accuracy of previous studies, and allow the creation of new tools to perform mechanistic simulations of sea ice physics and biogeochemistry. To address spatial and temporal variability in Antarctic sea ice algal production, and to establish the bounds and sensitivities of the sea ice ecosystem, a new, coupled sea ice ecosystem model was developed. In the vertical dimension, the model resolves incorporated saline brine, macronutrients concentrations, spectral shortwave radiation, and the sea ice algae community at high resolution. A novel method for thermodynamics, desalination, and fluid transfer in slushy, high-brine fraction sea ice was developed to simulate regions of high algal productivity. The processes of desalination, fluid transfer, snow-ice creation, and superimposed ice formation allowed the evolution of realistic vertical profiles of sea ice salinity and algal growth. The model replicated time series observations of ice temperature, salinity, algal biomass, and estimated fluid flux from the Ice Station Weddell experiment. In the horizontal dimension, sub-grid scale parameterizations of snow and ice thickness allow more realistic simulation of the ice thickness distribution, and consequently, sea ice algal habitat. The model is forced from above by atmospheric reanalysis climatologies, and from below by climatological ocean heat flux and deep-water ocean characteristics. Areal sea ice concentration and motion are specified according to SSM/I passive microwave satellite estimates of these parameters. Sensitivity testing of different snow and ice parameterizations showed that without a sub-grid scale ice thickness distribution, mean ice and snow thickness is lower and bottom sea ice algal production is elevated. Atmospheric forcing from different reanalysis data sets cause mean and regional shifts in sea ice production and associated ecology, even when sea ice extent and motion is controlled. Snow cover represents a first-order control over ice algal production by limiting the light available to bottom ice algal communities, and changes to the regional, rather than mean, snow thickness due to the use of different ice and snow representations are responsible for large differences in the magnitude and distribution of sea ice algal production. Improved convective nutrient exchange in high-brine fraction (slush) sea ice is responsible for up to 18% of total sea ice algal production. A continuous 10-year model run using climatological years 1996-2005 produced a time series of sea ice algal primary production that varied between 15.5 and 18.0 Tg C yr-1. This study represents the first interannual estimate of Antarctic sea ice algal production that dynamically considers the light, temperature, salinity, and nutrient conditions that control algal growth. On average, 64% of algal production occurred in the bottom 0.2 m of the ice pack. Production was spatially heterogeneous, with little consistency between years when examined at regional scales; however, at basin or hemispheric scales, annual production was fairly consistent in magnitude. At a mean of 0.9 g C m-2 yr-1, the magnitude of carbon uptake by sea ice algae will not significantly affect the Southern Ocean carbon cycle. Light availability was the dominant


Author : Iván Gómez
Pirjo Huovinen
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-29
Page : 397
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3030394484
Description :


Seaweeds (macroalgae) represent the most striking living components in the Antarctic’s near-shore ecosystems, especially across the West Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent islands. Due to their abundance, their central roles as primary producers and foundation organisms, and as sources of diverse metabolically active products, seaweed assemblages are fundamental to biogeochemical cycles in Antarctic coastal systems. In recent years, the imminence of climate change and the direct impacts of human beings, which are affecting vast regions of the Antarctic, have highlighted the importance of seaweed processes in connection with biodiversity, adaptation and interactions in the benthic network. Various research groups have been actively involved in the investigation of these topics. Many of these research efforts have a long tradition, while some “newcomers” have also recently contributed important new approaches to the study of these organisms, benefiting polar science as a whole. This book provides an overview of recent advances and insights gleaned over the past several years. Focusing on a timely topic and extremely valuable resource, it assesses the challenges and outlines future directions in the study of Antarctic seaweeds.


Author : D.N. Thomas
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2008-03-20
Page : 394
Category : Nature
ISBN 13 : 0199298114
Description :


There is an increased awareness of the importance of polar regions, and their vulnerability to anthropogenic derived change. This book offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to polar ecology. The emphasis is on the organisms that dominate these environments although pollution, conservation and experimental aspects are also considered.


Author : Alasdair McIntyre
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-06-09
Page : 384
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 1444348094
Description :


Life in the World's Oceans: Diversity, Abundance and Distribution is a true landmark publication. Comprising the synthesis and analysis of the results of the Census of Marine Life this most important book brings together the work of around 2000 scientists from 80 nations around the globe. The book is broadly divided into four sections, covering oceans past, oceans present, oceans future and a final section covering the utilisation of the data which has been gathered, and the coordination and communication of the results. Edited by Professor Alasdair Mcintyre, Marine Life is a book which should find a place on the shelves of all marine scientists, ecologists, conservation biologists, oceanographers, fisheries scientists and environmental biologists. All universities and research establishments where biological, earth and fisheries science are studied and taught should have copies of this essential book on their shelves. A true landmark publication One of the most important marine science books ever published Contributions from many world leading researchers Synthesis of a huge amount of important data Represents the culmination of 10 years' research by 2000 scientists from 80 countries


Author : Johanna Laybourn-Parry
Jemma Wadham
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2014-08-14
Page : 256
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0191649317
Description :


The Antarctic continent carries the greatest diversity of lake environments on the planet: freshwater and saline lakes, tidal freshwater epishelf lakes, lakes on ice shelves and glacier surfaces, and over three hundred subglacial lakes; extraordinary ecosystems that have been separated from the atmosphere for up to millions of years. This book provides a unique and cutting edge synthesis of Antarctic limnology, drawing together current knowledge on geomorphology, morphometry, chemistry, community structure and function. It emphasises throughout the value of these near-pristine ecosystems as barometers of climate change, showing how responsive and vulnerable they are to the indirect impacts of anthropogenic activity. Antarctic Lakes begins with an introduction to their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, providing a basis for understanding the subsequent detailed chapters on different lake types, and ends with a chapter considering the application of new technologies to polar limnology as well as identifying future research directions. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in Antarctic and polar limnology, and will also be of broad interest to researchers working in the areas of polar science, microbial ecology (and extremophiles), climatology, glaciology, and astrobiology.


Author : Bommanna G. Loganathan
Paul Kwan-Sing Lam
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2011-08-09
Page : 656
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1439838313
Description :


Environmental pollution by man-made persistent organic chemicals (POCs) has been a serious global issue for over half a century. POCs are prevalent in air, water, soil, and organisms including wildlife and humans throughout the world. They do not degrade and cause long-term effect in organisms. Exposure to certain POCs may result in serious environmental and health effects including birth defects, diminished intelligence and certain types of cancers. Therefore, POCs have been the subject of an intensive regional, national and international effort to limit their production, use, and disposal of these chemical stocks. Trend monitoring studies are essential to make clear the behavior and fate of these compounds and to protect our environment and living resources. Global Contamination Trends of Persistent Organic Chemicals provides comprehensive coverage of spatial and temporal trends of classical and emerging contaminants in aquatic, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems, including the Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems. Compiled by an international group of experts, this volume covers: Spatial and temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/DFs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), synthetic musks, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and octyl- and nonylphenols Environmental and biological matrices used for the trend studies were atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, bivalve mollusks, fish, marine mammals, terrestrial mammals, and human breast milk Spatial and temporal trend studies presented from Australia, Brazil, China, Estonia, Ghana, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the United States, coastal and open ocean environments, and the Arctic and Antarctic regions POCs have been the subject of an intensive regional, national, and international effort to limit their production and use, and to mitigate the disposal of these chemicals. Since POCs are prevalent in air, water, soil, and tissues of organisms (including wildlife and humans) throughout the world and do not degrade, they cause long-term effects in organisms. Trend monitoring studies are essential to make clear the behavior and fate of these compounds and to protect our environment and living resources. Relevant to professionals and students alike, Global Contamination Trends of Persistent Organic Chemicals facilitates the understanding of environmental and biological behavior of these chemicals and the development of strategies for protecting the global environment for future generations.


Author : Peter Convey
Katrin Linse
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-06-04
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 : 2889637786
Description :



Author : Tina Tin
Daniela Liggett
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-04
Page : 360
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 9400765827
Description :


At the beginning of the 21st century, Antarctica is poised at the edge of a warmer and busier world. Leading Antarctic researchers examine the needs and challenges of Antarctic environmental management today and tomorrow. Through: (i) investigating the impacts of human activities on specific ecosystems and species, (ii) examining existing environmental management and monitoring practices in place in various regions and (iii) interrogating stakeholders, they address the following questions: What future will Business-As-Usual bring to the Antarctic environment? Will a Business-As-Usual future be compatible with the objectives set out under the Antarctic Treaty, especially its Protocol on Environmental Protection? What actions are necessary to bring about alternative futures for the next 50 years? This volume is an outcome of the International Polar Year (2007-2009) Oslo Science Conference (8-12, June, 2010).


Author : Great BritainForeign and Commonwealth Office
Publisher : The Stationery Office
Release : 2011-03-30
Page : 271
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9780101804820
Description :


Pagination retained from the full text of the final report of the 32nd meeting, which is available at www.ats.aq