Caffeine For The Sustainment Of Mental Task Performance Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Institute of Medicine
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2002-01-07
Page : 171
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309082587
Description :


This report from the Committee on Military Nutrition Research reviews the history of caffeine usage, the metabolism of caffeine, and its physiological effects. The effects of caffeine on physical performance, cognitive function and alertness, and alleviation of sleep deprivation impairments are discussed in light of recent scientific literature. The impact of caffeine consumption on various aspects of health, including cardiovascular disease, reproduction, bone mineral density, and fluid homeostasis are reviewed. The behavioral effects of caffeine are also discussed, including the effect of caffeine on reaction to stress, withdrawal effects, and detrimental effects of high intakes. The amounts of caffeine found to enhance vigilance and reaction time consistently are reviewed and recommendations are made with respect to amounts of caffeine appropriate for maintaining alertness of military personnel during field operations. Recommendations are also provided on the need for appropriate labeling of caffeine-containing supplements, and education of military personnel on the use of these supplements. A brief review of some alternatives to caffeine is also provided.


Author : Institute of Medicine
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2001-12-07
Page : 172
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9780309170307
Description :


This report from the Committee on Military Nutrition Research reviews the history of caffeine usage, the metabolism of caffeine, and its physiological effects. The effects of caffeine on physical performance, cognitive function and alertness, and alleviation of sleep deprivation impairments are discussed in light of recent scientific literature. The impact of caffeine consumption on various aspects of health, including cardiovascular disease, reproduction, bone mineral density, and fluid homeostasis are reviewed. The behavioral effects of caffeine are also discussed, including the effect of caffeine on reaction to stress, withdrawal effects, and detrimental effects of high intakes. The amounts of caffeine found to enhance vigilance and reaction time consistently are reviewed and recommendations are made with respect to amounts of caffeine appropriate for maintaining alertness of military personnel during field operations. Recommendations are also provided on the need for appropriate labeling of caffeine-containing supplements, and education of military personnel on the use of these supplements. A brief review of some alternatives to caffeine is also provided.


Author : Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Military Nutrition Research
Publisher :
Release : 2001
Page : 157
Category : Arousal (Physiology)
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Institute of Medicine
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1999-09-04
Page : 304
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309065852
Description :


The activities of the Food and Nutrition Board's Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR, the committee) have been supported since 1994 by grant DAMD17-94-J-4046 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). This report fulfills the final reporting requirement of the grant, and presents a summary of activities for the grant period from December 1, 1994 through May 31, 1999. During this grant period, the CMNR has met from three to six times each year in response to issues that are brought to the committee through the Military Nutrition and Biochemistry Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine at Natick, Massachusetts, and the Military Operational Medicine Program of USAMRMC at Fort Detrick, Maryland. The CMNR has submitted five workshop reports (plus two preliminary reports), including one that is a joint project with the Subcommittee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women; three letter reports, and one brief report, all with recommendations, to the Commander, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, since September 1995 and has a brief report currently in preparation. These reports are summarized in the following activity report with synopses of additional topics for which reports were deferred pending completion of military research in progress. This activity report includes as appendixes the conclusions and recommendations from the nine reports and has been prepared in a fashion to allow rapid access to committee recommendations on the topics covered over the time period.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2001
Page :
Category : Caffeine
ISBN 13 : 9781280210075
Description :


This report from the Committee on Military Nutrition Research reviews the history of caffeine usage, the metabolism of caffeine, and its physiological effects. The effects of caffeine on physical performance, cognitive function and alertness, and alleviation of sleep deprivation impairments are discussed in light of recent scientific literature. The impact of caffeine consumption on various aspects of health, including cardiovascular disease, reproduction, bone mineral density, and fluid homeostasis are reviewed. The behavioral effects of caffeine are also discussed, including the effect of caffeine on reaction to stress, withdrawal effects, and detrimental effects of high intakes. The amounts of caffeine found to enhance vigilance and reaction time consistently are reviewed and recommendations are made with respect to amounts of caffeine appropriate for maintaining alertness of military personnel during field operations. Recommendations are also provided on the need for appropriate labeling of caffeine-containing supplements, and education of military personnel on the use of these supplements. A brief review of some alternatives to caffeine is also provided.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2001
Page : 157
Category : Caffeine
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Harris R. Lieberman
Robin B. Kanarek
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-03-18
Page : 432
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780203564554
Description :


Scientific and commercial interest in the field of nutritional neuroscience has grown immensely over the last decade. Today, a broad range of dietary supplements, foods for weight loss, functional foods, nutraceuticals, and medical foods are widely available. Many of these products are marketed for their effects on behavior or brain function, which relates directly to nutritional neuroscience and raises issues regarding their safety and efficacy. The only comprehensive reference on this subject, Nutritional Neuroscience discusses the relationship of nutrition to behavior and neuroscience. Following a review of fundamental issues and methods, the book covers the effects of macronutrients and micronutrients on brain function and behavior. Chapters are devoted to the effects of a wide range of foods, specific nutrients, food constituents, and food additives on cognitive behavior and development. The final section examines foods and supplements that modulate brain function. With a broad range of information presented in a simple and straightforward manner, this book provides an ideal introduction to nutritional neuroscience. The depth of information and comprehensive coverage also make this an essential reference for specialists involved in nutrition, neuroscience, pharmacology, psychology, and related disciplines.


Author : Institute of Medicine
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2006-01-09
Page : 462
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0309096413
Description :


Recognizing the importance of good nutrition for physical and mental status, the Department of Defense asked the Institute of Medicine to guide the design of the nutritional composition of a ration for soldiers on short-term, high-stress missions. Nutrient Composition of Rations for Short-Term, High-Intensity Combat Operations considers military performance, health concerns, food intake, energy expenditure, physical exercise, and food technology issues. The success of military operations depends to a large extent on the physical and mental status of the individuals involved. Appropriate nutrition during assault missions is a continuous challenge mainly due to diminished appetites of individuals under stress. Many less controllable and unpredictable factors, such as individual preferences and climate, come into play to reduce appetite. In fact, soldiers usually consume about half of the calories needed, leaving them in a state called “negative energy balance.†The consequences of being in negative energy balance while under these circumstances range from weight loss to fatigue to mental impairments. An individual’s physiological and nutritional status can markedly affect one’s ability to maximize performance during missions and may compromise effectiveness. With the number of these missions increasing, the optimization of rations has become a high priority.


Author : Nancy J. Wesensten
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2012-08-23
Page : 274
Category : Health & Fitness
ISBN 13 : 1107004098
Description :


Provides a critical review of stimulant medication literature regarding stimulant efficacy for restoring/maintaining cognition during sleep loss.


Author : Leslie Pray
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academy Press
Release : 2014-04-23
Page : 212
Category : Health & Fitness
ISBN 13 : 9780309297493
Description :


"Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements" is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine in August 2013 to review the available science on safe levels of caffeine consumption in foods, beverages, and dietary supplements and to identify data gaps. Scientists with expertise in food safety, nutrition, pharmacology, psychology, toxicology, and related disciplines; medical professionals with pediatric and adult patient experience in cardiology, neurology, and psychiatry; public health professionals; food industry representatives; regulatory experts; and consumer advocates discussed the safety of caffeine in food and dietary supplements, including, but not limited to, caffeinated beverage products, and identified data gaps. Caffeine, a central nervous stimulant, is arguably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. Occurring naturally in more than 60 plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves, cola nuts and cocoa pods, caffeine has been part of innumerable cultures for centuries. But the caffeine-in-food landscape is changing. There are an array of new caffeine-containing energy products, from waffles to sunflower seeds, jelly beans to syrup, even bottled water, entering the marketplace. Years of scientific research have shown that moderate consumption by healthy adults of products containing naturally-occurring caffeine is not associated with adverse health effects. The changing caffeine landscape raises concerns about safety and whether any of these new products might be targeting populations not normally associated with caffeine consumption, namely children and adolescents, and whether caffeine poses a greater health risk to those populations than it does for healthy adults. This report delineates vulnerable populations who may be at risk from caffeine exposure; describes caffeine exposure and risk of cardiovascular and other health effects on vulnerable populations, including additive effects with other ingredients and effects related to pre-existing conditions; explores safe caffeine exposure levels for general and vulnerable populations; and identifies data gaps on caffeine stimulant effects.


Author : Institute of Medicine
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2008-10-31
Page : 474
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 9780309177658
Description :


Dietary supplements are widely available through a rapidly expanding market of products commonly advertised as beneficial for health, performance enhancement, and disease prevention. Given the importance and frequent evaluation of physical performance and health as a criteria to join and remain in the military, the use of these products by military personnel has raised concern regarding over-all and long-term efficacy and safety. This evaluation is especially difficult, as many of these supplements contain multiple ingredients, have a changing composition over time, or are used intermittently at doses difficult to measure. This book analyzes the patterns of dietary supplement use among military personnel, examines published reviews of the scientific evidence, and identifies those dietary supplements that are beneficial and/or warrant concern due to risks to health or performance. The book also recommends a system to monitor adverse health effects and a framework to identify the need for active management of dietary supplements by military personnel. Military policy makers, personnel, and recruits will find this book useful, as will nutritionists, athletes, and others working in strenuous environments.


Author : National Research Council
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2009-07-16
Page : 136
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0309127408
Description :


Advances and major investments in the field of neuroscience can enhance traditional behavioral science approaches to training, learning, and other applications of value to the Army. Neural-behavioral indicators offer new ways to evaluate how well an individual trainee has assimilated mission critical knowledge and skills, and can also be used to provide feedback on the readiness of soldiers for combat. Current methods for matching individual capabilities with the requirements for performing high-value Army assignments do not include neuropsychological, psychophysiological, neurochemical or neurogenetic components; simple neuropsychological testing could greatly improve training success rates for these assignments. Opportunities in Neuroscience for Future Army Applications makes 17 recommendations that focus on utilizing current scientific research and development initiatives to improve performance and efficiency, collaborating with pharmaceutical companies to employ neuropharmaceuticals for general sustainment or enhancement of soldier performance, and improving cognitive and behavioral performance using interdisciplinary approaches and technological investments. An essential guide for the Army, this book will also be of interest to other branches of military, national security and intelligence agencies, academic and commercial researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and others interested in applying the rapid advances in neuroscience to the performance of individual and group tasks.


Author : Institute of Medicine
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2005-06-18
Page : 638
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309091586
Description :


Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium, and salt for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate discusses in detail the role of water, potassium, salt, chloride, and sulfate in human physiology and health. The major findings in this book include the establishment of Adequate Intakes for total water (drinking water, beverages, and food), potassium, sodium, and chloride and the establishment of Tolerable Upper Intake levels for sodium and chloride. The book makes research recommendations for information needed to advance the understanding of human requirements for water and electrolytes, as well as adverse effects associated with the intake of excessive amounts of water, sodium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. This book will be an invaluable reference for nutritionists, nutrition researchers, and food manufacturers.


Author : National Defense University Press
Publisher : NDU Press
Release : 2010-09-01
Page : 548
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1907521658
Description :


Includes a foreword by Major General David A. Rubenstein. From the editor: "71F, or "71 Foxtrot," is the AOC (area of concentration) code assigned by the U.S. Army to the specialty of Research Psychology. Qualifying as an Army research psychologist requires, first of all, a Ph.D. from a research (not clinical) intensive graduate psychology program. Due to their advanced education, research psychologists receive a direct commission as Army officers in the Medical Service Corps at the rank of captain. In terms of numbers, the 71F AOC is a small one, with only 25 to 30 officers serving in any given year. However, the 71F impact is much bigger than this small cadre suggests. Army research psychologists apply their extensive training and expertise in the science of psychology and social behavior toward understanding, preserving, and enhancing the health, well being, morale, and performance of Soldiers and military families. As is clear throughout the pages of this book, they do this in many ways and in many areas, but always with a scientific approach. This is the 71F advantage: applying the science of psychology to understand the human dimension, and developing programs, policies, and products to benefit the person in military operations. This book grew out of the April 2008 biennial conference of U.S. Army Research Psychologists, held in Bethesda, Maryland. This meeting was to be my last as Consultant to the Surgeon General for Research Psychology, and I thought it would be a good idea to publish proceedings, which had not been done before. As Consultant, I'd often wished for such a document to help explain to people what it is that Army Research Psychologists "do for a living." In addition to our core group of 71Fs, at the Bethesda 2008 meeting we had several brand-new members, and a number of distinguished retirees, the "grey-beards" of the 71F clan. Together with longtime 71F colleagues Ross Pastel and Mark Vaitkus, I also saw an unusual opportunity to capture some of the history of the Army Research Psychology specialty while providing a representative sample of current 71F research and activities. It seemed to us especially important to do this at a time when the operational demands on the Army and the total force were reaching unprecedented levels, with no sign of easing, and with the Army in turn relying more heavily on research psychology to inform its programs for protecting the health, well being, and performance of Soldiers and their families."


Author : Institute of Medicine
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-07-29
Page : 468
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9780309166119
Description :


The U.S. military’s concerns about the individual combat service member’s ability to avoid performance degradation, in conjunction with the need to maintain both mental and physical capabilities in highly stressful situations, have led to and interest in developing methods by which commanders can monitor the status of the combat service members in the field. This report examines appropriate biological markers, monitoring technologies currently available and in need of development, and appropriate algorithms to interpret the data obtained in order to provide information for command decisions relative to the physiological “readiness†of each combat service member. More specifically, this report also provides responses to questions posed by the military relative to monitoring the metabolic regulation during prolonged, exhaustive efforts, where nutrition/hydration and repair mechanisms may be mismatched to intakes and rest, or where specific metabolic derangements are present.


Author : Wendy M. Troxel
Regina A. Shih
Publisher : Rand Corporation
Release : 2015-04-30
Page : 282
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0833088513
Description :


"Rand National Defense Research Institute."


Author : National Research Council
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-06-10
Page : 255
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0309284538
Description :


The U.S. military does not believe its soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines should be engaged in combat with adversaries on a "level playing field." Our combat individuals enter engagements to win. To that end, the United States has used its technical prowess and industrial capability to develop decisive weapons that overmatch those of potential enemies. In its current engagement-what has been identified as an "era of persistent conflict"- the nation's most important weapon is the dismounted soldier operating in small units. Today's soldier must be prepared to contend with both regular and irregular adversaries. Results in Iraq and Afghanistan show that, while the U.S. soldier is a formidable fighter, the contemporary suite of equipment and support does not afford the same high degree of overmatch capability exhibited by large weapons platforms-yet it is the soldier who ultimately will play the decisive role in restoring stability. Making the Soldier Decisive on Future Battlefields establishes the technical requirements for overmatch capability for dismounted soldiers operating individually or in small units. It prescribes technological and organizational capabilities needed to make the dismounted soldier a decisive weapon in a changing, uncertain, and complex future environment and provides the Army with 15 recommendations on how to focus its efforts to enable the soldier and tactical small unit (TSU) to achieve overmatch.


Author : Silvio Garattini
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 1993
Page : 420
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 :
Description :


In this volume, leading international investigators provide an objective view of the physiological and behavioral effects of coffee and its relationship to various diseases, including cancer. The book begins with a survey of coffee consumption and analyses of the composition of coffee, the metabolism of caffeine and other components of coffee, and the mechanism of action of caffeine. The contributors then review and assess the experimental, clinical, and epidemiological data on the cardiovascular effects of caffeine; its role in myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases; its psychopharmacology and influence on sleep, wakefulness, and cognitive function; its reproductive effects and hazards; and its carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. A consensus emerges that the risks associated with coffee are low, particularly when it is consumed in moderation. Full consideration is given to the complex problems of extrapolating data from in vitro and animal experiments on caffeine and interpreting results of epidemiological studies. The contributors note that interspecies differences in the kinetics of caffeine make extrapolation of animal data very difficult, that experimental studies use caffeine in higher doses than humans consume, and that epidemiological findings on coffee drinkers are often confounded by factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. The discussions also emphasize the wide variations in the pharmacological properties of coffee prepared in different ways from different types of beans and highlight the need for further research on constituents of coffee other than caffeine. This volume is an authoritative source of information on the health effects of caffeine and coffee, and offers important methodological guidelines to researchers attempting to assess the risks of other commonly used substances.


Author : Institute of Medicine
Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2006-07-21
Page : 512
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 9780309180085
Description :


The U.S. Army Health Risk Appraisal group surveyed 400,000 active duty U.S. Army personnel in the late 1990s to determine whether or not those personnel met the dietary objectives of Healthy People 2000 (HP2000), a national agenda for health promotion and disease prevention. As reported by Yore et al. (2000), Army personnel generally did not meet the HP2000 goals for nutrition even though significant progress had been made during 1991-1998. Although the specific aspects of diet that would be relevant to this Committee on Mineral Requirements for Cognitive and Physical Performance of Military Personnel are lacking, the findings from this survey suggest that there are dietary problems in the military population. The potential for adverse effects of marginal mineral deficiencies among soldiers engaged in training or military operations and the prospect of improving military performance through mineral intakes have spurred the military's interest in this area of nutrition. Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel provides background information on the current knowledge regarding soldiers' eating behaviors as well as on the physical and mental stress caused by military garrison training or operations. This report also offers facts on the mineral content of rations and its intake by military personnel and addresses the potential effects of nutrient deficiencies due to inadequate intake or higher requirements during military operations. Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel provides information and recommendations on the development and uses of MDRIs and a description of strategies to increase intake of specific minerals, whether via usual foods, fortification, or supplementation. This report features a description of the metabolism and needs for selected minerals by military personnel under garrison training, recommendations on mineral intake levels, and an assessment of mineral level adequacy in operational rations. This report also includes a prioritization of the research needed to answer information gaps and details of study designs required to gain such information.


Author : Hendrie Weisinger
J. P. Pawliw-Fry
Publisher : Currency
Release : 2015
Page : 310
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0804136726
Description :


Offers more than 20 different strategies to use to downplay and reduce the feelings of stress while under pressure in both personal and professional situations, from public speaking, sales presentations to job interviews and even playing a friendly, but competitive, game of golf. 40,000 first printing.