Closing The Gap In A Generation Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health
World Health Organization
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2008
Page : 246
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9241563702
Description :


Social justice is a matter of life and death. It affects the way people live, their consequent chance of illness, and their risk of premature death. We watch in wonder as life expectancy and good health continue to increase in parts of the world and in alarm as they fail to improve in others.


Author : Organizzazione mondiale della sanità
Publisher :
Release : 2008
Page : 246
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Health and Medicine Division
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-04-27
Page : 582
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309452961
Description :


In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual's health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.


Author : WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health
World Health Organization
Publisher :
Release : 2008
Page : 33
Category : Health care rationing
ISBN 13 :
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Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2007
Page :
Category : Equality
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Social justice is a matter of life and death. It affects the way people live, their consequent chance of illness, and their risk of premature death. We watch in wonder as life expectancy and good health continue to increase in parts of the world and in alarm as they fail to improve in others.


Author : Vijay Pendakur
Publisher : Stylus Publishing, LLC
Release : 2016-02-25
Page : 188
Category : Education
ISBN 13 : 1620363143
Description :


This book offers a novel and proven approach to the retention and success of underrepresented students. It advocates a strategic approach through which an institution sets clear goals and metrics and integrates the identity support work of cultural / diversity centers with skill building through cohort activities, enabling students to successfully navigate college, graduate on time and transition to the world of work. Underlying the process is an intersectional and identity-conscious, rather than identity-centered, framework that addresses the complexity of students’ assets and needs as they encounter the unfamiliar terrain of college. In the current landscape of higher education, colleges and universities normally divide their efforts between departments and programs that explicitly work on developing students’ identities and separate departments or programs that work on retaining and graduating higher-risk students. This book contends that the gap between cultural/diversity centers and institutional retention efforts is both a missed opportunity and one that perpetuates the opportunity gap between students of color and low-income students and their peers. Identity-consciousness, the central framework of this book, differs from an identity-centric approach where the identity itself is the focus of the intervention. For example, a Latino men’s program can be developed as an identity-centered initiative if the outcomes of the program are all tied to a deeper or more complex understanding of one’s Latino-ness and/or masculinity. Alternately, this same program can be an identity-conscious student success program if it is designed from the ground up with the students’ racial and gender identities in mind, but the intended outcomes are tied to student success, such as term-to-term credit completion, yearly persistence, engagement in high-impact practices, or timely graduation. Following the introductory chapter focused on framing how we understand risk and success in the academy, the remaining chapters present programmatic interventions that have been tested and found effective for students of color, working class college students, and first-generation students. Each chapter opens with a student story to frame the problem, outlines the key research that informs the program, and offers sufficient descriptive information for staff or faculty considering implementing a similar identity-conscious intervention on their campus. The chapters conclude with a discussion of assessment, and suggested “Action Items” as starting points.


Author : WHO Healthy Cities Project
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2003
Page : 31
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9289013710
Description :


Poorer people live shorter lives and suffer higher levels of ill health than the more affluent in society, and this disparity highlights the sensitivity of human health to socio-economic factors. This booklet examines this social gradient in health and explains how psychological and social influences affect physical health and longevity. It also considers the role of public policy in promoting a social environment that is more conducive to better health. Topics discussed include: stress, early childhood health, social exclusion, work, unemployment and job insecurity, social support networks, the effects of alcohol and other drug addictions, food and nutrition, and healthier transport systems.


Author : Michael Marmot
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release : 2015-09-10
Page : 400
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 1408857987
Description :


'Splendid and necessary' - Henry Marsh, author of Do No Harm, New Statesman There are dramatic differences in health between countries and within countries. But this is not a simple matter of rich and poor. A poor man in Glasgow is rich compared to the average Indian, but the Glaswegian's life expectancy is 8 years shorter. The Indian is dying of infectious disease linked to his poverty; the Glaswegian of violent death, suicide, heart disease linked to a rich country's version of disadvantage. In all countries, people at relative social disadvantage suffer health disadvantage, dramatically so. Within countries, the higher the social status of individuals the better is their health. These health inequalities defy usual explanations. Conventional approaches to improving health have emphasised access to technical solutions – improved medical care, sanitation, and control of disease vectors; or behaviours – smoking, drinking – obesity, linked to diabetes, heart disease and cancer. These approaches only go so far. Creating the conditions for people to lead flourishing lives, and thus empowering individuals and communities, is key to reduction of health inequalities. In addition to the scale of material success, your position in the social hierarchy also directly affects your health, the higher you are on the social scale, the longer you will live and the better your health will be. As people change rank, so their health risk changes. What makes these health inequalities unjust is that evidence from round the world shows we know what to do to make them smaller. This new evidence is compelling. It has the potential to change radically the way we think about health, and indeed society.


Author : Lorrie L. Kelley
Connie Petersen
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2012-01-01
Page : 256
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0323094198
Description :


This workbook uses an integrated approach to learning sectional anatomy and applying it to diagnostic imaging. It facilitates comprehension, learning, and retention of the material presented in Kelley's Sectional Anatomy for Imaging Professionals, 3rd Edition. In addition to fill-in-the-blank, matching, multiple-choice, true/false, puzzles, fill-in-the-table, and short-answer questions, this new edition includes 300 illustrations from the main text for labeling practice. Three post tests cover neurologic, body, and extremity content, offering additional opportunities for readers to test their comprehension. Chapter objectives focus your attention on the important concepts you are expected to master by the end of the chapter. A variety of engaging exercises, such as matching, true/false, fill-in-the-blank, fill-in-the-table, and labeling aid your learning and retention. Memory learning aids, such as mnemonics, help you memorize quickly so you can concentrate more on applications of concepts. Updated material corresponds with updates to the main text. More cross-reference images and anatomy maps have been added for additional guidance in labeling exercises. Additional exercises reinforce the relationship of specific structures to surrounding anatomy.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2009
Page : 118
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : David Chinnery
Kurt Keutzer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2002-06-30
Page : 407
Category : Computers
ISBN 13 : 1402071132
Description :


This book carefully details design tools and techniques for high-performance ASIC design. Using these techniques, the performance of ASIC designs can be improved by two to three times. Important topics include: Improving performance through microarchitecture; Timing-driven floorplanning; Controlling and exploiting clock skew; High performance latch-based design in an ASIC methodology; Automatically identifying and synthesizing complex logic gates; Automated cell sizing to increase performance and reduce power; Controlling process variation.These techniques are illustrated by designs running two to three times the speed of typical ASICs in the same process generation.


Author : David M. De Ferranti
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2003
Page : 216
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9780821351727
Description :


The fundamental elements to unlocking the potential of technology to speed up economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are investing in education, opening up new technologies through foreign trade and investment, and encouraging private sector research and development. 'Closing the Gap in Education and Technology' advises Latin American and Caribbean governments to address the region's deficits in skills and technology, and thereby boost productivity, ultimately improving growth prospects. To close this 'productivity gap' in the region, the report calls for a range of policy approaches and strategies, depending on a country's level of development. It identifies three progressive stages in a country's technological evolution -- adoption, adaptation, and creation -- and observes that policies should be designed to address the particular challenges that accompany each stage.In conclusion, 'Closing the Gap in Education and Technology' argues that many countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region have been improving education and social risk management systems so that they are now ready to benefit from the rewards associated with creating stronger trade and technology ties with countries that are more technologically advanced.


Author : Ortrud Leßmann
Hans-Uwe Otto
Publisher : Verlag Barbara Budrich
Release : 2011-03-08
Page : 294
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 3866496893
Description :


The volume relates the Capabilities Approach to research and practice in education, welfare economics and social policy. Thus, it challenges traditional objectives and approaches in these fields. The authors suggest a capabilities perspective that calls into question the metric of success of these disciplines and in the fields of politics. It moves the attention away from economic growth and human capital towards autonomy and “agency freedom” of (young) individuals. Especially with respect to the young this implies a substantial shift of perspectives. Young persons have been particularly highlighted in the political debate: on the one hand side they are one of the groups with the highest risk to face situations of poverty, on the other hand side young persons are the main focus group of educational strategies in the form of investments in human capital which dominate the discourse. In this context, the capability perspective implies a provoking shift of paradigms because it takes place against the background of capitalist societies redefining their notion of “the public” and diminishing the collective responsibility for the vulnerable. The volume discusses whether and in how far the capabilities perspective makes a difference and provides additional value in terms of promoting democracy and justice on a social level as well as well-being on the level of individual (particularly young) individuals.


Author : Richard G. Wilkinson
M. G. Marmot
Publisher :
Release : 1998-01-01
Page : 27
Category : Medical policy
ISBN 13 : 9789289012874
Description :



Author : Michael Marmot
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2014
Page : 188
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9789289000307
Description :


The WHO European Region has seen remarkable health gains, though inequities persist both between and within countries. Much more is understood now about the extent and social causes of these inequities, particularly since the 2008 report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. This review of inequities in health across the 53 Member States of the Region was commissioned to support the development of the new European policy framework for health and well-being, Health 2020. It builds on the global evidence and recommends policies to reduce health inequities and the health divide across all countries, including those with low incomes. The report is presented in four parts. Part I provides the context and background to the review, and sets out the key principles underpinning the recommendations and the rationale for grouping them into four broad themes: life-course stages, wider society, the broader macro-level context, and governance, delivery and monitoring systems. Part II summarizes current evidence on the magnitude of the health divide among European Region countries, describing the inequities in health and their social determinants. Part III focuses on the four themes, making recommendations with supporting evidence. Part IV outlines the implementation issues, summarizes the framework for action, discusses reasons for failure, provides guidance on good practice and summarizes the review's conclusions and recommendations. The review is a wake-up call to political and professional leaders alike, an opportunity for them to facilitate the work of those dedicated to improving health outcomes and narrow the health gap between and within the countries of the Region.


Author : Australian Government - Department of the Prime Minister & Cabinet
Publisher :
Release : 2017
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781925362138
Description :



Author : Erik Blas
Johannes Sommerfeld
Publisher :
Release : 2011
Page : 209
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9789241564137
Description :


The thirteen case studies contained in this publication were commissioned by the research node of the Knowledge Network on Priority Public Health Conditions (PPHC-KN), a WHO-based interdepartmental working group associated with the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The publication is a joint product of the Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights (ETH), Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), and Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research (AHPSR). The case studies describe a wealth of experiences with implementing public health programmes that intend to address social determinants and to have a great impact on health equity. They also document the real-life challenges in implementing such programmes, including the challenges in scaling up, managing policy changes, managing intersectoral processes, adjusting design and ensuring sustainability. This publication complements the previous publication by the Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights entitled Equity, social determinants and public health programmes, which analysed social determinants and health equity issues in 13 public health programmes, and identified possible entry points for interventions to address those social determinants and inequities at the levels of socioeconomic context, exposure, vulnerability, health outcomes and health consequences.


Author :
Publisher : World Economic Forum
Release : 2008
Page : 172
Category : Sex discrimination
ISBN 13 : 9295044096
Description :


"The Index benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, political, education- and health-based criteria, and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparisons across regions and income groups, over time"--P. 3.


Author : Sana Loue
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-01-16
Page : 843
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0387337539
Description :


Americans are living longer, and the elder population is growing larger. To meet the ongoing need for quality information on elder health, the Encyclopedia of Aging and Public Health combines multiple perspectives to offer readers a more accurate and complete picture of the aging process. The book takes a biopsychosocial approach to the complexities of its subject. In-depth introductory chapters include coverage on a historical and demographic overview of aging in America, a guide to biological changes accompanying aging, an analysis of the diversity of the U.S. elder population, legal issues commonly affecting older adults, and the ethics of using cognitively impaired elders in research. From there, over 425 entries cover the gamut of topics, trends, diseases, and phenomena: -Specific populations, including ethnic minorities, custodial grandparents, and centenarians -Core medical conditions associated with aging, from cardiac and pulmonary diseases to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s -Mental and emotional disorders -Drugs/vitamins/alternative medicine -Disorders of the eyes, feet, and skin -Insomnia and sleep disorders; malnutrition and eating disorders -Sexual and gender-related concerns -And a broad array of social and political issues, including access to care, abuse/neglect, veterans’ affairs, and assisted suicide Entries on not-quite-elders’ concerns (e.g., midlife crisis, menopause) are featured as well. And all chapters and entries include references and resource lists. The Encyclopedia has been developed for maximum utility to clinicians, social workers, researchers, and public health professionals working with older adults. Its multidisciplinary coverage and scope of topics make this volume an invaluable reference for academic and public libraries.


Author : World Health Organization
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2009
Page : 62
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9241563877
Description :


This publication is a comprehensive assessment of leading risks to global health. It provides detailed global and regional estimates of premature mortality, disability and loss of health attributable to 24 global risk factors.--Publisher's description.