Crime And Justice Volume 42 Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Michael Tonry
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2013-10-06
Page : 400
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 022609765X
Description :


For the American criminal justice system, 1975 was a watershed year. Offender rehabilitation and individualized sentencing fell from favor. The partisan politics of “law and order” took over. Among the results four decades later are the world’s harshest punishments and highest imprisonment rate. Policymakers’ interest in what science could tell them plummeted just when scientific work on crime, recidivism, and the justice system began to blossom. Some policy areas—sentencing, gun violence, drugs, youth violence—became evidence-free zones. In others—developmental crime prevention, policing, recidivism studies, evidence mattered. Crime and Justice in America: 1975-2025 tells how policy and knowledge did and did not interact over time and charts prospects for the future. What accounts for the timing of particular issues and research advances? What did science learn or reveal about crime and justice, and how did that knowledge influence policy? Where are we now, and, perhaps even more important, where are we going? The contributors to this volume, the leading scholars in their fields, bring unsurpassed breadth and depth of knowledge to bear in answering these questions. They include Philip J. Cook, Francis T. Cullen, Jeffrey Fagan, David Farrington, Daniel S. Nagin, Peter Reuter, Lawrence W. Sherman, and Franklin E. Zimring. For thirty-five years, the Crime and Justice series has provided a platform for the work of sociologists, psychologists, criminal lawyers, justice scholars, and political scientists as it explores the full range of issues concerning crime, its causes, and it remedies.


Author : Michael Tonry
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2019-06-14
Page : 512
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 022664510X
Description :


American Sentencing provides an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of efforts in the state and the federal systems to make sentencing fairer, reduce overuse of imprisonment, and help offenders live law-abiding lives. It addresses a variety of topics and themes related to sentencing and reform, including racial disparities, violence prediction, plea negotiation, case processing, federal and state guidelines, California’s historic “realignment,” and more. This volume covers what students, scholars, practitioners, and policy makers need to know about how sentencing really works, what a half century’s “reforms” have and have not accomplished, how sentencing processes can be made fairer, and how sentencing outcomes can be made more just. Its writers are among America’s leading scholarly specialists—often the leading specialist—in their fields. Clearly and accessibly written, American Sentencing is ideal for teaching use in seminars and courses on sentencing, courts, and criminal justice. Its authors’ diverse perspectives shed light on these issues, making it likely the single, most authoritative source of information on the state of sentencing in America today.


Author : Michael Tonry
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2017-02-22
Page : 512
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 022644094X
Description :


Sentencing Policies and Practices in Western Countries: Comparative and Cross-national Perspectives is the forty-fifth addition to the Crime and Justice series. Contributors include Thomas Weigend on criminal sentencing in Germany since 2000; Julian V. Roberts and Andrew Ashworth on the evolution of sentencing policy and practice in England and Wales from 2003 to 2015; Jacqueline Hodgson and Laurène Soubise on understanding the sentencing process in France; Anthony N. Doob and Cheryl Marie Webster on Canadian sentencing policy in the twenty-first century; Arie Freiberg on Australian sentencing policies and practices; Krzysztof Krajewski on sentencing in Poland; Alessandro Corda on Italian policies; Michael Tonry on American sentencing; and Tapio Lappi-Seppälä on penal policy and sentencing in the Nordic countries.


Author : Michael Tonry
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2017-02-22
Page : 512
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 022649005X
Description :


Justice Futures: Reinventing American Criminal Justice is the forty-sixth volume in the Crime and Justice series. Contributors include Francis Cullen and Daniel Mears on community corrections; Peter Reuter and Jonathan Caulkins on drug abuse policy; Harold Pollack on drug treatment; David Hemenway on guns and violence; Edward Mulvey on mental health and crime; Edward Rhine, Joan Petersilia, and Kevin Reitz on parole policies; Daniel Nagin and Cynthia Lum on policing; Craig Haney on prisons and incarceration; Ronald Wright on prosecution; and Michael Tonry on sentencing policies.


Author : Richard K. Moule Jr.
Bryanna Fox
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2021-03-31
Page : 110
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 1000372677
Description :


American law enforcement, and the public’s perception of police, is a topic of growing interest among academics, practitioners, and policymakers. From the 2014 events in Ferguson, MO and the alleged "Ferguson Effect", to the debate over the impact of body worn cameras (BWCs), police militarization, use of force, and other practices that may alter the public’s view of police legitimacy and procedural justice, there is an increasing need for research addressing these contemporary issues in American policing. This book presents the latest research on these topics, as well as related topics noted in the Presidential Task Force on 21st Century Policing, such as police use of technology, transparency, oversight, and building trust with the community. The studies contained in this book examine these issues by leveraging empirical data on policing, public perceptions, crime, and diverse research methods, to present high-quality analysis of these timely and relevant topics in today’s world. The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Crime and Justice.


Author : Richard Jochelson, et al.
Publisher : Manitoba Law Journal
Release :
Page : 408
Category : Law
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Robson Crim is housed in Robson Hall, one of Canada's oldest law schools. Robson Crim has transformed into a Canada wide research hub in criminal law, with blog contributions from coast to coast, and from outside of this nation's borders. With over 30 academic peer collaborators at Canada's top law schools, Robson Crim is bringing leading criminal law research and writing to the reader. We also annually publish a special edition criminal law volume of the Manitoba Law Journal, providing a chance for authors to enter the peer reviewed fray. The Journal has ranked in the top 0.1 percent on Academia.edu and is widely used. This issue has articles from a variety of contributing authors including: David Ireland, Richard Jochelson, Heather Cave, Peter Sankoff, Jason M. Chin, Michael Lutsky, Itiel E. Dror, John W. Burchill, Christopher Sewrattan, Craig Forcese, Nicholas Rosati, Stephanie Ben-Ishai, Arash Nayerahmadi, Prashan Ranasinghe, Rebecca Jaremko Bromwich, Alanah Josey, James Gacek, and Ryan Ziegler.


Author : M. R. McGuire
Thomas J. Holt
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-02-24
Page : 696
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1317590759
Description :


Technology has become increasingly important to both the function and our understanding of the justice process. Many forms of criminal behaviour are highly dependent upon technology, and crime control has become a predominantly technologically driven process – one where ‘traditional’ technological aids such as fingerprinting or blood sample analysis are supplemented by a dizzying array of tools and techniques including surveillance devices and DNA profiling. This book offers the first comprehensive and holistic overview of global research on technology, crime and justice. It is divided into five parts, each corresponding with the key stages of the offending and justice process: Part I addresses the current conceptual understanding of technology within academia and the criminal justice system; Part II gives a comprehensive overview of the current relations between technology and criminal behaviour; Part III explores the current technologies within crime control and the ways in which technology underpins contemporary formal and informal social control; Part IV sets out some of the fundamental impacts technology is now having upon the judicial process; Part V reveals the emerging technologies for crime, control and justice and considers the extent to which new technology can be effectively regulated. This landmark collection will be essential reading for academics, students and theorists within criminology, sociology, law, engineering and technology, and computer science, as well as practitioners and professionals working within and around the criminal justice system.


Author : John Muncie
Barry Goldson
Publisher : Pine Forge Press
Release : 2006-05-15
Page : 240
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9781446233184
Description :


'In this pathbreaking volume Muncie and Goldson bring together leading authors to examine and compare youth justice systems around the world. Comparative Youth Justice will be of interest to all criminologists concerned with comparative penal policy and will be essential to all scholars of youth justice' - Professor Tim Newburn, London School of Economics and Political Science and President of the British Society of Criminology 'Comparative Youth Justice is what we need in an era of hardening social policies and irresponsible political demagoguery: thoughtful critiques, comparative analysis, and a commitment to the rights of youth. John Muncie and Barry Goldson have done a fine job of bringing together a group of commentators who know the inner workings of juvenile justice and what it will take to change the current law and order model. A book that is required reading for practitioners, professors, policy makers, researchers, and students concerned about the bankrupt state of juvenile justice and willing to consider new ideas and directions' - Tony Platt, California State University, Sacramento With contributions from leading commentators from 13 different countries, this carefully integrated edited collection comprises the most authoritive comparative analysis of international youth justice currently available. However, Comparative Youth Justice is not simply an attempt to document national similarities and differences, but looks critically at how global trends are translated at the local level. This book also examines how youth justice is implemented in practice with a view to promoting change as well as reflection. Each chapter addresses key critical issues: - the degree of compliance with international law; - the extent of repenalistion; - adulteration; - tolerance; - the impact of experiments in restoration and risk management. This book is designed as a companion volume to Youth Crime and Justice, edited by Barry Goldson and John Muncie, published simultaneously by SAGE Publications. 'This is a brilliant set of edited volumes that will be an indispensable and timely source of information and analysis for anyone with an interest in issues of youth justice and comparative criminology.' David A. Green, Oxford University


Author : Max G. Manwaring
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2013-02-01
Page : 160
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 1136336230
Description :


This anthology argues that facing the diverse threats in the 'new world disorder' requires a new look and new approaches. The requirement is to establish that contemporary deterrence demands replacing the old 'nuclear theology' with new policy and strategy to deal with the myriad state, non-state, and trans-national nuclear and non-nuclear menaces that have heretofore been ignored or wished away.


Author : Daniel S. Nagin
Francis T. Cullen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-04-17
Page : 422
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1351112708
Description :


Deterrence, Choice, and Crime explores the various dimensions of modern deterrence theory, relevant research, and practical applications. Beginning with the classical roots of deterrence theory in Cesare Beccaria’s profoundly important contributions to modern criminological thought, the book draws out the many threads in contemporary criminology that are explicitly mentioned or at least hinted by Beccaria. These include sanction risk perceptions and their behavioral consequences, the deterrent efficacy of the certainty versus the severity of punishment, the role of celerity of punishment in the deterrence process, informal versus formal deterrence, and individual differences in deterrence. The richness of the volume is seen in the inclusion of chapters that focus on the theoretical development of deterrence across disciplines such as criminology and economics. In an innovative section, the role of agents of deterrence is considered. Lessons are learned from the practical applications of deterrence undertaken in the areas of policing, corrections, and the community. The closing section includes Michael Tonry’s "An Honest Politician’s Guide to Deterrence: Certainty, Severity, Celerity, and Parsimony," a reminder of Beccaria’s dictum that "it is better to prevent crimes than punish them." In the current environment, deterrence arguments are routinely used to justify policies that do just the opposite. Ray Paternoster, who contributed two chapters, passed away as this volume was being finalized. Fittingly, this book is dedicated to him and ends with Alex Piquero’s poignant remembrance of Ray, a path-breaking deterrence scholar, beloved mentor, and ardent supporter of social justice. Suitable for researchers and graduate students as well as for advanced courses in criminology, this book breaks new ground in theorizing the effects of punishment and other sanctions on crime control.


Author : Michael Tonry
Peter Reuter
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2020-08-10
Page : 512
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 022670842X
Description :


For most Americans, The Godfather, The Sopranos, and the Cosa Nostra exemplify organized crime. In Asia the term conjures up images of Japanese yakuza and Chinese triads, in Italy the Cosa Nostra and ‘Ndrangheta, in Latin America Mexican narco-gangs and Colombian drug cartels, in the Netherlands transnational drug and human trafficking, and in Scandinavia outlaw motorcycle gangs. Some but not all those organizations are “mafias” with centuries-long histories, distinctive cultures, and complicated relationships with local communities and governments. Others are new, large but transitory and with no purpose other than maximizing profits from illegal markets. Organized crime organizations have existed for centuries. Serious scholarly, as opposed to journalistic or law enforcement, efforts to understand them, however, date back only a few decades. Authoritative overviews were, until very recently, impossible. Rigorous, analytically acute, and methodologically sophisticated literatures did not exist. They have begun to emerge. They have developed in many countries, involve work in different languages and disciplines, and deploy a wide range of methods. Organizing Crime: Mafias, Markets, and Networks provides the most exhaustive overview ever published of knowledge about organized crime. It provides intensive accounts of American, Italian, and Dutch developments, covers both national mafias and transnational criminality, and delves in depth into gender, human capital, and money laundering issues. The writers are based in seven countries. To a person they are, or are among, the world’s most distinguished specialists in their subjects. At last, credible explanations and testable hypotheses are available concerning when, why, and under what circumstances mafias and other organized crime organizations come into being, what makes them distinctive, what they do and with what effects, and how to contain them.


Author : Michael Tonry
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2014-12-15
Page : 512
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 022620880X
Description :


Violent and property crime rates in all Western countries have been falling since the early and mid-1990s, after rising in the 1970s and 1980s. Few people have noticed the common patterns and fewer have attempted to understand or explain them. Yet the implications are essential for thinking about crime control and criminal justice policy more broadly. Crime rates in Canada and the United States, for example, have moved in parallel for 40 years, but Canada has neither increased its imprisonment rate nor adopted harsher criminal justice policies. The implication is that something other than mass imprisonment, zero-tolerance policing, and “three-strikes” laws explains why crime rates in our time are falling. The essays in this 43rd volume of Crime and Justice explore the possibilities cross-nationally. They document the common rises and falls in crime and look at possible explanations, including changes in sensitivity to violence generally and intimate violence in particular, macro-level changes in self-control, and structural and economic developments in modern states. The contributors to this volume include Marcelo Aebi, Andromachi Tseloni, Eric Baumer, Manuel Eisner, Graham Farrell, Janne Kivivuori, Tapio Lappi-Seppälä, Suzy McElrath, Richard Rosenfeld, Rossella Selmini, Nick Tilley, and Kevin T. Wolff.


Author : Michael Tonry
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2013-12-16
Page : 400
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 022601018X
Description :


Prosecutors are powerful figures in any criminal justice system. They decide what crimes to prosecute, whom to pursue, what charges to file, whether to plea bargain, how aggressively to seek a conviction, and what sentence to demand. In the United States, citizens can challenge decisions by police, judges, and corrections officials, but courts keep their hands off the prosecutor. Curiously, in the United States and elsewhere, very little research is available that examines this powerful public role. And there is almost no work that critically compares how prosecutors function in different legal systems, from state to state or across countries. Prosecutors and Politics begins to fill that void. Police, courts, and prisons are much the same in all developed countries, but prosecutors differ radically. The consequences of these differences are enormous: the United States suffers from low levels of public confidence in the criminal justice system and high levels of incarceration; in much of Western Europe, people report high confidence and support moderate crime control policies; in much of Eastern Europe, people’s perceptions of the law are marked by cynicism and despair. Prosecutors and Politics unpacks these national differences and provides insight into this key area of social control. Since 1979 the Crime and Justice series has presented a review of the latest international research, providing expertise to enhance the work of sociologists, psychologists, criminal lawyers, justice scholars, and political scientists. The series explores a full range of issues concerning crime, its causes, and its cure.


Author : Francesco Parisi
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017-04-04
Page : 544
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0191507202
Description :


Covering over one-hundred topics on issues ranging from Law and Neuroeconomics to European Union Law and Economics to Feminist Theory and Law and Economics, The Oxford Handbook of Law and Economics is the definitive work in the field of law and economics. The book gathers together scholars and experts in law and economics to create the most inclusive and current work on law and economics. Edited by Francisco Parisi, the Handbook looks at the origins of the field of law and economics, tracks its progression and increased importance to both law and economics, and looks to the future of the field and its continued development by examining a cornucopia of fields touched by work in law and economics. The uniqueness of its breadth, depth, and convenience make the volume essential to scholars, students, and contributors in the field of law and economics.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2000
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
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Author : Cecilia Chouhy
Joshua C. Cochran
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-03-06
Page : 356
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1000029506
Description :


Criminal Justice Theory: Explanations and Effects undertakes a systematic study of theories of the criminal justice system, which historically have received very little attention from scholars. This is a glaring omission given the risk of mass imprisonment, the increasing presence of police in inner-city communities, and the emergence of new policy initiatives aimed at improving the quality and effectiveness of the administration of justice. Fortunately, however, a number of disparate theoretical works have appeared that seek to provide insight into the nature and impact of criminal justice. Based on 13 original essays by influential scholars, this volume pulls together the most significant of these perspectives, thus creating a state-of-the-art assessment of contemporary criminal justice theory. Criminal justice theory can be divided into two main categories. The first includes works that seek to explain the operation of the criminal justice system. Most of these contributions have grappled with the core reality of American criminal justice: its rising embrace of punitiveness and the growth of mass imprisonment. The second category focuses on works that identify theories that have often guided efforts to reduce crime. The issue here focuses mainly on the effects of certain theoretically guided criminal justice interventions. The current volume is thus organized into these two categories: explanations and effects. The result is an innovative and comprehensive book that not only serves researchers by advancing scholarship but also is appropriate for advanced undergraduate or graduate classroom use.


Author : Neal Shover
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-02-20
Page : 240
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0429973381
Description :


Persistent thieves,criminals who resume committing crimes of burglary, robbery, vehicle theft, and ordinary theft despite previous attempts to stop,are a main focal point of American criminology and criminal justice. Cast as career criminals," they are also one of the principal targets of the war on crime" that American governments have waged for more than two decades.Building on a theoretical interpretation of crime as choice, crime-control policies and programs justified by notions of deterrence and incapacitation have proliferated. America's urban police departments now have repeat offender units," and many of the new state sentencing codes mandate lengthy sentences for defendants with previous convictions. Great Pretenders is based on the author's original studies and previously published research and on more than fifty autobiographies of persistent thieves. Shover uses a crime-as-choice framework and a life-course perspective to make sense of important decisions and changes in the lives of persistent thieves. He shows how the working-class origins of most persistent thieves produce both low legitimate and low criminal aspirations, even as those origins leave them ill equipped to exploit comparatively safe, lucrative, and newer forms of criminal opportunity.In this book Shover describes how many persistent thieves and hustlers identify with crime and pursue a lifestyle of life as party in which their choices alternately are made in contexts of drug-using hedonism or desperation. Their estimates of the likely payoffs from crime are severely distorted, and most give little thought to possible arrest. As they get older, however, persistent thieves make qualitative changes in the crimes they commit, and many eventually stop committing crimes altogether.The author highlights some unintended consequences of harsh crime control measures and raises critical questions about the one-size-fits-all approach to crime of recent decades.


Author : Henry Ruth
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2006-03-31
Page : 384
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0674266943
Description :


The development of crime policy in the United States for many generations has been hampered by a drastic shortage of knowledge and data, an excess of partisanship and instinctual responses, and a one-way tendency to expand the criminal justice system. Even if a three-decade pattern of prison growth came to a full stop in the early 2000s, the current decade will be by far the most punitive in U.S. history, hitting some minority communities particularly hard. The book examines the history, scope, and effects of the revolution in America's response to crime since 1970. Henry Ruth and Kevin Reitz offer a comprehensive, long-term, pragmatic approach to increase public understanding of and find improvements in the nation's response to crime. Concentrating on meaningful areas for change in policing, sentencing, guns, drugs, and juvenile crime, they discuss such topics as new priorities for the use of incarceration; aggressive policing; the war on drugs; the need to switch the gun control debate to a focus on crime gun regulation; a new focus on offenders' transition from confinement to freedom; and the role of private enterprise. A book that rejects traditional liberal and conservative outlooks, The Challenge of Crime takes a major step in offering new approaches for the nation's responses to crime.


Author : Richard Jochelson, et al.
Publisher : Manitoba Law Journal
Release :
Page : 472
Category : Law
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Robson Crim is housed in Robson Hall, one of Canada's oldest law schools. Robson Crim has transformed into a Canada wide research hub in criminal law, with blog contributions from coast to coast, and from outside of this nation's borders. With over 30 academic peer collaborators at Canada's top law schools, Robson Crim is bringing leading criminal law research and writing to the reader. We also annually publish a special edition criminal law volume of the Manitoba Law Journal, providing a chance for authors to enter the peer reviewed fray. The Journal has ranked in the top 0.1 percent on Academia.edu and is widely used. This issue has articles from a variety of contributing authors including: David Ireland, Richard Jochelson, Lucinda Vandervort, Paul M. Alexander, Kelly De Luca, Davinder Singh, Karen Busby, Gurgen Petrossian, Anita Grace, Kyle McCleery, Colton Fehr, Kathryn M. Campbell, Jonathan Avey, Maeve W. McMahon, Paetrick Sakowski, Nathan Phelan, and Lauren Chancellor.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 1997
Page :
Category : Criminal justice, Administration of
ISBN 13 :
Description :