Does What You Export Matter Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Daniel Lederman
William Maloney
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2012-06-18
Page : 144
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0821384910
Description :


Does what economies export matter for development? If so, can industrial policies improve on the export basket generated by the market? This book approaches these questions from a variety of conceptual and policy viewpoints. Reviewing the theoretical arguments in favor of industrial policies, the authors first ask whether existing indicators allow policy makers to identify growth-promoting sectors with confidence. To this end, they assess, and ultimately cast doubt upon, the reliability of many popular indicators advocated by proponents of industrial policy. Second, and central to their critique, the authors document extraordinary differences in the performance of countries exporting seemingly identical products, be they natural resources or 'high-tech' goods. Further, they argue that globalization has so fragmented the production process that even talking about exported goods as opposed to tasks may be misleading. Reviewing evidence from history and from around the world, the authors conclude that policy makers should focus less on what is produced, and more on how it is produced. They analyze alternative approaches to picking winners but conclude by favoring 'horizontal-ish' policies--for instance, those that build human capital or foment innovation in existing and future products—that only incidentally favor some sectors over others.


Author : Daniel Lederman
William Maloney
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2012-06-18
Page : 144
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0821395467
Description :


Does what economies export matter for development? If so, can industrial policies improve on the export basket generated by the market? This book approaches these questions from a variety of conceptual and policy viewpoints. Reviewing the theoretical arguments in favor of industrial policies, the authors first ask whether existing indicators allow policy makers to identify growth-promoting sectors with confidence. To this end, they assess, and ultimately cast doubt upon, the reliability of many popular indicators advocated by proponents of industrial policy. Second, and central to their critique, the authors document extraordinary differences in the performance of countries exporting seemingly identical products, be they natural resources or 'high-tech' goods. Further, they argue that globalization has so fragmented the production process that even talking about exported goods as opposed to tasks may be misleading. Reviewing evidence from history and from around the world, the authors conclude that policy makers should focus less on what is produced, and more on how it is produced. They analyze alternative approaches to picking winners but conclude by favoring 'horizontal-ish' policies--for instance, those that build human capital or foment innovation in existing and future products that only incidentally favor some sectors over others.


Author : Xavier Cirera
William F. Maloney
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2017-10-02
Page : 214
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1464811849
Description :


Since Schumpeter, economists have argued that vast productivity gains can be achieved by investing in innovation and technological catch-up. Yet, as this volume documents, developing country firms and governments invest little to realize this potential, which dwarfs international aid flows. Using new data and original analytics, the authors uncover the key to this innovation paradox in the lack of complementary physical and human capital factors, particularly firm managerial capabilities, that are needed to reap the returns to innovation investments. Hence, countries need to rebalance policy away from R and D-centered initiatives †“ which are likely to fail in the absence of sophisticated private sector partners †“ toward building firm capabilities, and embrace an expanded concept of the National Innovation System that incorporates a broader range of market and systemic failures. The authors offer guidance on how to navigate the resulting innovation policy dilemma: as the need to redress these additional failures increases with distance from the frontier, government capabilities to formulate and implement the policy mix become weaker. This book is the first volume of the World Bank Productivity Project, which seeks to bring frontier thinking on the measurement and determinants of productivity to global policy makers.


Author : Ana Paula Cusolito
William F. Maloney
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2018-12-21
Page : 200
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1464813620
Description :


Productivity has again moved to center stage in two critical academic and policy debates: the slowing of global growth amid spectacular technological advances, and developing countries’ frustratingly slow progress in catching up to the technological frontier. Productivity Revisited brings together the new conceptual advances of 'second-wave' productivity analysis that have revolutionized the study of productivity, calling much previous analysis into question while providing a new set of tools for approaching these debates. The book extends this analysis and, using unique data sets from multiple developing countries, grounds it in the developing-country context. It calls for rebalancing away from an exclusive focus on misallocation toward a greater focus on upgrading firms and facilitating the emergence of productive new establishments. Such an approach requires a supportive environment and various types of human capital--managerial, technical, and actuarial--necessary to cultivate new transformational firms. The book is the second volume of the World Bank Productivity Project, which seeks to bring frontier thinking on the measurement and determinants of productivity to global policy makers.


Author : Célestin Monga
Justin Yifu Lin
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-02-06
Page : 608
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0192512684
Description :


The Oxford Handbook of Structural Transformation addresses the economics of structural transformation around the world. It deals with major themes, which include history and context, critical issues and concepts, methodological foundations, main theoretical approaches, policy issues, some illuminating country experiences of structural transformation, and important debates on the respective roles of the market and the state in that process. The historical record provides a challenge for economists to understand the success of the rising economic powers (some of them initially considered unlikely candidates for prosperity) and the stagnation or decline of others. Five major questions emerge: · Why has so much divergence occurred among nations of the world since the Industrial Revolution, and particularly during the 20th century? · Why has the pattern changed recently with the emergence of a few developing economies (e.g. the multi-polar world), and can it be sustained? · What are the key drivers, strategies, and policies, to foster structural transformation in various different country contexts and in a constantly evolving global economy? · How could low- and middle-income countries avoid development traps and learn from past experiences whilst exploiting the new opportunities offered by the Fourth Industrial Revolution? · What is the role of various development stakeholders and other important players in facilitating sustained economic convergence among nations? This book addresses these questions, bringing the rigor, usefulness, and multi-disciplinary scope of the Oxford Handbook series to a critical topic in economics. The Oxford Handbook of Structural Transformation is an essential reference work and a stimulus to new research and creativity across all branches of the social sciences.


Author : Sebastian Saez
Daria Taglioni
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2015-01-15
Page : 168
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1464801568
Description :


This Toolkit provides a framework, guidelines, and set of practical tools to conduct an analysis and diagnostic of trade competitiveness in the services sector and to identify both the main constraints to improved competitiveness and the appropriate policy responses.


Author : United Nations Women
Publisher : United Nations
Release : 2019-05-31
Page : 142
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9210042107
Description :


Proponents of inclusive growth advocate for equity considerations to be at the front and center of growth policy. However, their principal concern is with class – not gender equality. This publication shows that economic growth is an inherently gendered process and gender-based inequalities can in fact be barriers to shared prosperity. Gender equality will thus need to be central to any project of inclusion. The book argues that for growth to be gender-equitable and truly inclusive, the pattern of growth must create decent work and productive employment for women and men. This would require policy-makers to rethink the role of macro-level economic policies, including trade, industrial, macro-economic, finance and investment policies, and to adopt human rights as a guiding normative framework. The book highlights the importance of addressing unpaid care and domestic work and calls for a transformative approach that recognizes and values care work.


Author : Indermit S. Gill
Ivailo Izvorski
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2014-02-26
Page : 398
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1464801207
Description :


Eurasian economies have to become efficient more productive, job-creating, and stable. But efficiency is not the same as diversification. Governments need to worry less about the composition of exports and production and more about asset portfolios natural resources, built capital, and economic institutions.


Author : Shahid Yusuf
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2014-07-25
Page : 54
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1498359124
Description :


Since the onset of the Arab Spring, economic uncertainty in Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen (Arab Countries in Transition, ACTs) has slowed already sluggish growth; worsened unemployment, particularly of youth; undermined business confidence, affected tourist arrivals, and depressed domestic and foreign direct investment. Furthermore, political and social tensions have constrained reform efforts. Assessing policy options as presented in the voluminous literature on the Arab Spring and based on cross-country experience, this paper concludes that sustainable and inclusive growth calls for a two pronged approach: short term measures that revive growth momentum and partially allay popular concerns; complemented with efforts to adjust the public’s expectations and prepare the ground for structural reforms that will deliver the desired longer tem performance.


Author : Christian Henn
Mr.Chris Papageorgiou
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2013-05-15
Page : 34
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1484351630
Description :


This paper develops new, far more extensive estimates of export quality, covering 178 countries and hundreds of products over 1962–2010. Quality upgrading is particularly rapid during the early stages of development, with quality convergence largely completed as a country reaches upper middle-income status. There is significant cross-country heterogeneity in quality growth rates. Within any given product line, quality converges both conditionally and unconditionally to the world frontier; increases in institutional quality and human capital are associated with faster quality upgrading. In turn, faster growth in quality is associated with more rapid output growth. The evidence suggests that quality upgrading is best encouraged through a broadly conducive domestic environment, rather than sector-specific policies. Diversification is important to create new upgrading opportunities.


Author : OECD
World Trade Organization
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2011-07-15
Page : 400
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9264117474
Description :


This joint OECD-WTO publication provides a comprehensive analysis of trends and developments in aid that aims to help developing countries integrate into the global economy and benefit from trade opportunities.


Author : Richard Newfarmer
Martha Denisse Pierola
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2015-05-26
Page : 166
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1464804478
Description :


In Zimbabwe, trade has been a driver of economic growth, rising incomes, and progressive empowerment of Zimbabweans through rising standards of living and the promise of better jobs. Since 1980, through good years and bad years, increases in exports have been positively associated with increases in national income. Zimbabwe's location and resource base, together with a low-cost but relatively well educated labor force, have endowed it with a naturally high trade ratio built on a diversified base that facilitates using trade as an engine of growth. While trade volumes have rebounded smartly from the deep recession of 2007-2008, these do not offset other worrisome longer-term trends: • Export growth during the last decade has been lacklustre and failed to drive high growth. • Agricultural exports, other than tobacco, have lost their once dominant role in the region, and are no longer a source of diversification. • Manufacturing has withered in a continuing secular decline. • Zimbabwe’s export basket has become less diversified and more dependent on a narrow range of mineral and, to a lesser extent, agricultural products. In short, exports have become less diversified, less-technologically sophisticated, and less labor-intensive - and ever more dependent on a few large mining activities to provide foreign exchange and employment. This report traces the roots of this poor performance to several policy issues: poor predictability of macroeconomic policy and economic governance has created an unfavorable climate for private investment and trade; a tariff structure that dampens export profitability; industrial policies - indigenization policy in particular - that undermine investor confidence and inhibits private investment; and finally, competition-limiting policies toward services that limit connectivity of Zimbabweans and raise trade costs. The good news arising from the study is that the remedies for these policy shortcomings lie in Zimbabwean hands. If the government were to adopt reforms that reconfigure economy-wide incentives and trade and industrial policies, it could promote sustained growth, economic diversification and empowerment of poor people.


Author : Daniel Lederman
Julian Messina
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2013-12-13
Page : 168
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1464800138
Description :


Entrepreneurship is a fundamental driver of growth, development, and job creation. While Latin America and the Caribbean has a wealth of entrepreneurs, firms in the region, compared to those in other regions, are small in size and less likely to grow or innovate. Productivity growth has remained lackluster for decades, including during the recent commodity boom. Enhancing the creation of good jobs and accelerating productivity growth in the region will require dynamic entrepreneurs. Latin American Entrepreneurs: Many Firms but Little Innovation studies the landscape of entrepreneurship in Latin America and the Caribbean. Utilizing new datasets that cover issues such as firm creation, firm dynamics, export decisions, and the behavior of multinational corporations, the book synthesizes the results of a comprehensive analysis of the status, prospects, and challenges of entrepreneurship in the region. Useful tools and information are provided to help policy makers and practitioners identify policy areas governments can explore to enhance innovation and encourage high-growth, transformational entrepreneurship.


Author : Paolo Giordano
Rosario Campos
Publisher : Inter-American Development Bank
Release : 2018-11-12
Page : 157
Category : Law
ISBN 13 :
Description :


The Trade and Integration Monitor 2018 analyzes the ongoing trade recovery in the region and tracks its competitiveness in global markets, with a particular focus on the capacity for positioning itself in higher-quality, sophisticated, and technology-dense sectors. This edition is the latest in a series of reports of the Integration and Trade Sector of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) that study the evolution of the position of Latin America and the Caribbean in the global trading system, drawing on available data from INTrade, the IDB trade and integration information system.


Author : Stephan Huber
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-04-16
Page : 135
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3319760939
Description :


National economies are linked through flows of capital and goods. This book addresses those linkages, analyzes their benefits for economic development, and evaluates a country’s opportunities to reap the best possible rewards by influencing the linkages. The book focuses on the role of product characteristics in international economics and their impact on economic development. After an introduction to the topic, it analyzes the influence of product sophistication on growth, and offers alternative means of measuring product characteristics. In turn, the book provides evidence for the impact of foreign equity on the characteristics of the products that firms produce. Moreover, it presents empirical findings that prove that the quality of a country's legal and institutional framework is influenced by said country’s predisposition to trade rule-of-law-intensive goods.


Author : United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Publisher : United Nations
Release : 2016-09-30
Page : 250
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9210583140
Description :


Development is a transformational process, combining a series of interactive and cumulative linkages to create a virtuous circle of enhanced resource mobilization, higher incomes, expanding markets and investment, leading to more and better jobs. Such a structural transformation requires selective government policies to shift a country's productive structure towards activities and sectors with higher productivity, better paid jobs and greater technological potential ? what is commonly called "industrial policies". The Trade and Development Report (TDR) 2016 highlights the central role of industrialization, given the higher productivity of manufactures in relation to other sectors. Manufactures can also generate strong cross-sectoral linkages (e.g. backward, forward, income and knowledge linkages) and complementarities that enhance productivity and employment growth in the primary and tertiary sectors. Countries that have been able to narrow the productivity and income gap with developed countries are those (mostly in Asia) that managed to expand investment, employment and productivity in their manufacturing sector in a sustainable way, which contrasts with other countries and regions affected by "stalled industrialization" or "premature de-industrialization". Successful structural transformation requires a comprehensive policy approach. This includes strategic policies for international trade, pro-growth macroeconomic policies to ensure high levels of aggregate demand and investment and a stable and competitive exchange rate, policies in support of the profits-investment nexus to provide finance for structural transformation, and closing tax loopholes through fiscal and regulatory measures that would bring greater transparency to corporate decision making and finance public expenditure that provides an enabling context for production upgrading and economic diversification.


Author : Chad P. Bown
Daniel Lederman
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2017-03-15
Page : 196
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 146480978X
Description :


This book proposes a renewal of 'Open Regionalism' in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) aimed at achieving the region's goals of high growth with stability. The LAC region experienced a growth spurt with equity during the first decade of the 21st Century. It is well understood that an unsustainable demand boom fueled by terms-of-trade improvements drove this growth acceleration episode, especially in South America. Unfortunately, terms of trade are no longer fueling growth, and the region’s policymakers are in search of new sources of growth with stability. With the experience of East Asia and the Pacific in mind, many policymakers in LAC are looking to international economic ties as a potential source of stable growth. The challenge highlighted in this book lies in designing an integration agenda comprising trade and factor market integration that is conducive to region-wide efficiency gains, which can help LAC enhance its global competitiveness. The forces of geography imply that pro-growth global integration cannot be achieved without building a strong neighborhood. Thus, this volume argues that LAC's regional economic integration agenda needs to go well beyond the current spaghetti bowl of preferential trading arrangements.


Author : Mr.Chris Papageorgiou
Mr.Nicola Spatafora
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2012-12-14
Page : 22
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1475532180
Description :


Limited diversification is an underlying characteristic of many low-income countries (LICs). Concentration in sectors with limited scope for increases in productivity and quality may result in less broad-based and sustainable growth. Moreover, lack of diversification may increase exposure to adverse external shocks and macroeconomic instability. The SDN will have three objectives. First, to review and extend the evidence, from the existing literature and ongoing IMF work, that points to diversification as a crucial aspect of the development process. A major focus will be on cross-country and cross-regional differences in the pace of diversification. Second, to draw lessons from the experiences of those countries that have successfully diversified their economies. Third, to analyze the relationship between diversification, growth, and volatility.


Author : OECD
World Trade Organization
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2013-06-11
Page : 142
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9264201459
Description :


The almost 300 case stories in this book show clear results of how aid-for-trade programmes are helping developing countries to build human, institutional and infrastructure capacity to integrate into regional and global markets and to make good use of trade opportunities.


Author : Daniel Lederman
Julian Messina
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2014-07-01
Page : 178
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1464802858
Description :


El emprendimiento es un determinante fundamental del crecimiento y la creación de empleo. Pese a que los emprendedores abundan en América Latina y el Caribe, las empresas de la región son más pequeñas y menos propensas a crecer e innovar que las de otras regiones. El crecimiento de la productividad lleva décadas siendo mediocre y el reciente period de auge de las materias primas no ha supuesto una excepción. Así pues, la presencia de emprendedores dinámicos será necesaria para impulsar la creación de puestos de trabajo de calidad y la aceleración del crecimiento de la productividad en la región. En El emprendimiento en América Latina: muchas empresas y poca innovación se estudia el panorama del emprendimiento en América Latina y el Caribe. El libro recurre a nuevas bases de datos que abordan cuestiones como la creación de empresas, las dinámicas empresariales, las decisiones de exportar y el comportamiento de las corporaciones multinacionales y sintetiza los resultados de un análisis exhaustivo del estatus, las perspectivas y los retos del emprendimiento en la región. Asimismo, el libro suministra herramientas útiles e información para ayudar a los profesionales y responsables de las políticas a identificar los ámbitos de las mismas que los gobiernos pueden explorar para impulsar la innovación e incentivar el emprendimiento transformador con potencial de crecimiento elevado.