Drug Laws And Institutional Racism Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Cheryl L. Chambers
Publisher : Lfb Scholarly Pub Llc
Release : 2011
Page : 263
Category : Law
ISBN 13 :
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Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2004
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
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Law is a mechanism we use to instigate social change and bring about equality. It is also the tool that has been used to institutionalize, legitimize and perpetuate inequality. In the past beliefs of racial inferiority and savagery may have resulted in legislation designed to perpetuate a group's subordinate status. Laws and public policy are created within an historical and political context. Is there a connection between social climate and the advent of federal drug legislation? In this research, conflict and racial inequality perspectives are applied to the role of the economy and politics to foster understanding of opium laws in the late 1800's and early 1900's, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, and the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 and the contexts from which they emerged. It is hypothesized that an historical analysis of the Congressional discussions surrounding these drug laws will illustrate that competition and threat, economic and/or political, were present prior to the enactment of the laws. Analyses indicate that while economic and to a limited extent political competition between Chinese immigrants and white Americans affected the passage of the opium laws, economic and political competition had little effect on the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act or the Anti-Drug Abuse Act. While vilification of and anti-minority sentiment during the opium legislation was clear and recognizable, it was almost non-existent during the marijuana legislation, and present in only nuances in the 1980's. Over time there was a shift from vilifying a minority group to vilifying the drugs. The study concludes that racism was embedded in three of the four opium laws but does not support it being embedded in the Marihuana Tax Act. While racism was embedded in the Anti-Drug Abuse Act it was more subtle than in the opium laws.


Author : Michelle Alexander
Publisher : The New Press
Release : 2020-01-07
Page : 434
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 1620971941
Description :


Named one of the most important nonfiction books of the 21st century by Entertainment Weekly‚ Slate‚ Chronicle of Higher Eduction‚ Literary Hub, Book Riot‚ and Zora A tenth-anniversary edition of the iconic bestseller—“one of the most influential books of the past 20 years,” according to the Chronicle of Higher Education—with a new preface by the author “It is in no small part thanks to Alexander’s account that civil rights organizations such as Black Lives Matter have focused so much of their energy on the criminal justice system.” —Adam Shatz, London Review of Books Seldom does a book have the impact of Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow. Since it was first published in 2010, it has been cited in judicial decisions and has been adopted in campus-wide and community-wide reads; it helped inspire the creation of the Marshall Project and the new $100 million Art for Justice Fund; it has been the winner of numerous prizes, including the prestigious NAACP Image Award; and it has spent nearly 250 weeks on the New York Times bestseller list. Most important of all, it has spawned a whole generation of criminal justice reform activists and organizations motivated by Michelle Alexander’s unforgettable argument that “we have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it.” As the Birmingham News proclaimed, it is “undoubtedly the most important book published in this century about the U.S.” Now, ten years after it was first published, The New Press is proud to issue a tenth-anniversary edition with a new preface by Michelle Alexander that discusses the impact the book has had and the state of the criminal justice reform movement today.


Author : John Hudak
Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
Release : 2020-06-30
Page : 267
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 0815738323
Description :


From “Reefer Madness” to legal purchase at the corner store With long-time legal and social barriers to marijuana falling across much of the United States, the time has come for an accessible and informative look at attitudes toward the dried byproduct of Cannabis sativa. Marijuana: A Short History profiles the politics and policies concerning the five-leaf plant in the United States and around the world. Millions of Americans have used marijuana at some point in their lives, yet it remains a substance shrouded by myth, misinformation, and mystery. And nearly a century of prohibition has created an enforcement system that is racist, and the continuing effects of racially-targeted over criminalization limit economic and social opportunities in communities of color. Marijuana: A Short History tells this story, and that of states stepping up to enact change. This book offers an up-to-date, cutting-edge look at how a plant with a tumultuous history has emerged from the shadows of counterculture and illegality. Today, marijuana has become a remarkable social, economic, and even political force—with a surprising range of advocates and opponents. Over the past two decades marijuana policy has transformed dramatically in the United States, as dozens of states have openly defied the federal government. Marijuana: A Short History provides a brief yet compelling narrative that discusses the social and cultural history of marijuana but also tells us how a once-vilified plant has been transformed into a serious, even mainstream, public policy issue. Focusing on politics, the media, government, racism, criminal justice, and education, the book describes why public policy has changed, and what that change might mean for marijuana’s future place in society.


Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2016-09-03
Page : 170
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0309439124
Description :


Estimates indicate that as many as 1 in 4 Americans will experience a mental health problem or will misuse alcohol or drugs in their lifetimes. These disorders are among the most highly stigmatized health conditions in the United States, and they remain barriers to full participation in society in areas as basic as education, housing, and employment. Improving the lives of people with mental health and substance abuse disorders has been a priority in the United States for more than 50 years. The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 is considered a major turning point in America's efforts to improve behavioral healthcare. It ushered in an era of optimism and hope and laid the groundwork for the consumer movement and new models of recovery. The consumer movement gave voice to people with mental and substance use disorders and brought their perspectives and experience into national discussions about mental health. However over the same 50-year period, positive change in American public attitudes and beliefs about mental and substance use disorders has lagged behind these advances. Stigma is a complex social phenomenon based on a relationship between an attribute and a stereotype that assigns undesirable labels, qualities, and behaviors to a person with that attribute. Labeled individuals are then socially devalued, which leads to inequality and discrimination. This report contributes to national efforts to understand and change attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that can lead to stigma and discrimination. Changing stigma in a lasting way will require coordinated efforts, which are based on the best possible evidence, supported at the national level with multiyear funding, and planned and implemented by an effective coalition of representative stakeholders. Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change explores stigma and discrimination faced by individuals with mental or substance use disorders and recommends effective strategies for reducing stigma and encouraging people to seek treatment and other supportive services. It offers a set of conclusions and recommendations about successful stigma change strategies and the research needed to inform and evaluate these efforts in the United States.


Author : Doris Marie Provine
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2008-09-15
Page : 193
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0226684784
Description :


Race is clearly a factor in government efforts to control dangerous drugs, but the precise ways that race affects drug laws remain difficult to pinpoint. Illuminating this elusive relationship, Unequal under Law lays out how decades of both manifest and latent racism helped shape a punitive U.S. drug policy whose onerous impact on racial minorities has been willfully ignored by Congress and the courts. Doris Marie Provine’s engaging analysis traces the history of race in anti-drug efforts from the temperance movement of the early 1900s to the crack scare of the late twentieth century, showing how campaigns to criminalize drug use have always conjured images of feared minorities. Explaining how alarm over a threatening black drug trade fueled support in the 1980s for a mandatory minimum sentencing scheme of unprecedented severity, Provine contends that while our drug laws may no longer be racist by design, they remain racist in design. Moreover, their racial origins have long been ignored by every branch of government. This dangerous denial threatens our constitutional guarantee of equal protection of law and mutes a much-needed national discussion about institutionalized racism—a discussion that Unequal under Law promises to initiate.


Author : Kojo Koram
Publisher : Pluto Press (UK)
Release : 2019
Page : 223
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9780745338804
Description :


The War on Drugs has led to millions of people dead, displaced and incarcerated. Disproportionately enforced on oppressed races, international drug prohibition has reinforced the colour line across the globe.While laws prohibiting the production, sale and use of particular drugs are presented as politically neutral and objective, this collection reveals the racist impact of the War on Drugs across multiple continents and in numerous situations. From racialised drugs policing at festivals in the UK to the necropolitical wars in Juarez, Mexico and from the exchange of drug policing programs between the United States and Israel to the management of black bodies in Brazil, this collection proves that the regulation of drugs and race is an international, and intentional, disaster.Pushing forward the debate and activism led by groups such as Black Lives Matter and calling for radical changes in drug policy legislation and prison reform, both nationally and internationally, this collection cuts deep and rings true for all people fighting racism today.


Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Health and Medicine Division
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-04-27
Page : 582
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309452961
Description :


In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual's health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.


Author : Robyn Maynard
Publisher :
Release : 2018
Page :
Category : Blacks
ISBN 13 : 9781552669808
Description :


Delving behind Canada's veneer of multiculturalism and tolerance, Policing Black Lives traces anti-Blackness from the slave ships to the prisons, the classrooms and beyond.


Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-03-23
Page : 408
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 0309467136
Description :


Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term "proactive policing" to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred. Proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. Today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the United States. They are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing. Proactive Policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and U.S. communities.


Author : David R. Bewley-Taylor
Khalid Tinasti
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2020-09-25
Page : 424
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1788117069
Description :


Analysing arguably one of the most controversial areas in public policy, this pioneering Research Handbook brings together contributions from expert researchers to provide a global overview of the shifting dynamics of drug policy. Emphasising connections between the domestic and the international, contributors illustrate the intersections between drug policy, human rights obligations and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, offering an insightful analysis of the regional dynamics of drug control and the contemporary and emerging problems it is facing.


Author : Jonathan Taylor Langner
Publisher :
Release : 2019
Page : 256
Category : African Americans
ISBN 13 :
Description :


This research focuses on different aspects of the co-construction African Americans and marijuana in the news. First, the historical background of modern drug laws, including marijuana prohibition, and how this was dependent on racialized fears in the wake of the abolition of slavery. Next, the prevalence and variety of marijuana constructions in a national newspaper, with careful attention paid to associations with racial identifiers. Finally, how African American athletes and marijuana are co-constructed in an exemplary article. Chapter 2 describes how racial fears relate to the social construction of disadvantaged population in the media. We first describe the current situation in which African Americans are disproportionately incarcerated for drug crimes. Then, we briefly review the history of drug policy in the US and describe how it was dependent on slave-era beliefs and thus became a model of institutional racism. Finally, we relate this situation to research from various fields, including sociology, media studies, politics and discourse in order to show the justifications for the proceeding research project. Due to the changing landscape of marijuana policy in the US, but a continuation of racially disproportional punishment for marijuana use, Chapter 3 was designed to assess current constructions of marijuana in the news. Specifically, the use of fear-based discourse in the co-construction race and the three general categories of marijuana policy. The results of the analysis confirmed that African American men are associated with marijuana in disproportional numbers and that fear-based discourse and imagery are the primary characteristics of this discourse. Interestingly, this analysis also found a potentially unique construction in which both criminal and medical marijuana policy constructions were associated with African American athletes Chapter 4 is a critical analysis of an article exemplifying this frame. The results of this analysis are discussed in the context of hegemonic power relations in the US, racialized discourse, and marijuana policy alternatives. Chapter 5 is a discussion of the conclusions generated from this research as a whole, including implications for marijuana policy and future research.


Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Health and Medicine Division
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-06-09
Page : 116
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309450500
Description :


On June 16, 2016, the Roundtable on Population Health Improvement held a workshop at the Lutheran Church of the Good Shepherd in Brooklyn, New York, to explore the influence of trauma and violence on communities. The workshop highlighted examples of community-based organizations using trauma-informed approaches to treat violence and build safe and healthy communities. Presentations showcased examples that can serve as models in different sectors and communities and shared lessons learned. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the event.


Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-09-08
Page : 184
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9780309165860
Description :


As the population of older Americans grows, it is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. Differences in health by racial and ethnic status could be increasingly consequential for health policy and programs. Such differences are are not simply a matter of education or ability to pay for health care. For instance, Asian Americans and Hispanics appear to be in better health, on a number of indicators, than White Americans, despite, on average, lower socioeconomic status. The reasons are complex, including possible roles for such factors as selective migration, risk behaviors, exposure to various stressors, patient attitudes, and geographic variation in health care. This volume, produced by a multidisciplinary panel, considers such possible explanations for racial and ethnic health differentials within an integrated framework. It provides a concise summary of available research and lays out a research agenda to address the many uncertainties in current knowledge. It recommends, for instance, looking at health differentials across the life course and deciphering the links between factors presumably producing differentials and biopsychosocial mechanisms that lead to impaired health.


Author : Diane C Emling
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-11-27
Page : 158
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1000757528
Description :


Invisible, intractable and deadly—such is the nature of institutional racism. But are there mitigating actions that society could take against them? Diane Carpenter Emling explores this question in Institutional Racism and Restorative Justice: Oppression and Privilege in America. Moving beyond the immediate sources and consequences of prejudice, racism and inequality, to thoroughly assess approaches to restorative justice, Emling details America’s complex history of racism, demonstrating how it becomes embedded in society through land ownership, housing, education, health care, employment, public services and criminal justice. For each of these issues, she suggests actions to restore justice. But societies don’t operate institution by institution, and extraordinary changes will be necessary to address systemic racism. Directed at college undergraduate students, Emling’s book offers a valued contribution for teaching courses in African American studies, sociology, economics, politics and American history. Written in a comprehensive and accessible style, this book offers a much-needed perspective in the literature on institutional racism.


Author : Michael Rosino
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2021-03-16
Page : 188
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1315295156
Description :


Since President Nixon coined the phrase, the "War on Drugs" has presented an important change in how people view and discuss criminal justice practices and drug laws. The term evokes images of militarization, punishment, and violence, as well as combat and the potential for victory. It is no surprise then that questions such as whether the "War on Drugs" has "failed" or "can be won" have animated mass media and public debate for the past 40 years. Through analysis of 30 years of newspaper content, Debating the Drug War examines the social and cultural contours of this heated debate and explores how proponents and critics of the controversial social issues of drug policy and incarceration frame their arguments in mass media. Additionally, it looks at the contemporary public debate on the "War on Drugs" through an analysis of readers’ comments drawn from the comments sections of online news articles. Through a discussion of the findings and their implications, the book illuminates the ways in which ideas about race, politics, society, and crime, and forms of evidence and statistics such as rates of arrest and incarceration or the financial costs of drug policies and incarceration are advanced, interpreted, and contested. Further, the book will bring to light how people form a sense of their racial selves in debates over policy issues tied to racial inequality such as the "War on Drugs" through narratives that connect racial categories to concepts such as innocence, criminality, free will, and fairness. Debating the Drug War offers readers a variety of concepts and theoretical perspectives that they can use to make sense of these vital issues in contemporary society.


Author : Delores D. Jones-Brown
Beverly D. Frazier
Publisher : ABC-CLIO
Release : 2014-07-15
Page : 631
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 031335717X
Description :


Does justice exist for Blacks in America? This comprehensive compilation of essays documents the historical and contemporary impact of the law and criminal justice system on people of African ancestry in the United States. • 120 A–Z entries on race and criminal justice and famous or infamous African American crime perpetrators or victims • Contributions from more than 50 distinguished scholars from many criminal justice/criminology academic programs across the country • An index of key persons, events, and legislation


Author : Stokely Carmichael
Charles V. Hamilton
Publisher : Jonathan Cape
Release : 1968
Page : 198
Category : African Americans
ISBN 13 : 9780224613590
Description :



Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Health and Medicine Division
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-10-28
Page : 482
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309459540
Description :


Drug overdose, driven largely by overdose related to the use of opioids, is now the leading cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. The ongoing opioid crisis lies at the intersection of two public health challenges: reducing the burden of suffering from pain and containing the rising toll of the harms that can arise from the use of opioid medications. Chronic pain and opioid use disorder both represent complex human conditions affecting millions of Americans and causing untold disability and loss of function. In the context of the growing opioid problem, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched an Opioids Action Plan in early 2016. As part of this plan, the FDA asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to convene a committee to update the state of the science on pain research, care, and education and to identify actions the FDA and others can take to respond to the opioid epidemic, with a particular focus on informing FDA's development of a formal method for incorporating individual and societal considerations into its risk-benefit framework for opioid approval and monitoring.


Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-07-24
Page : 334
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0309091268
Description :


Many racial and ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and others, have historically faced severe discriminationâ€"pervasive and open denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. Today, large differences among racial and ethnic groups continue to exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, criminal justice, health, and other areas. While many factors may contribute to such differences, their size and extent suggest that various forms of discriminatory treatment persist in U.S. society and serve to undercut the achievement of equal opportunity. Measuring Racial Discrimination considers the definition of race and racial discrimination, reviews the existing techniques used to measure racial discrimination, and identifies new tools and areas for future research. The book conducts a thorough evaluation of current methodologies for a wide range of circumstances in which racial discrimination may occur, and makes recommendations on how to better assess the presence and effects of discrimination.