Economics And Hiv Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Deborah Johnston
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2013-05-29
Page : 216
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1135035814
Description :


This book explains how, and why, economics has been applied to a terrible pandemic, using a range of examples mostly drawn from the region most affected, sub-Saharan Africa. Part I shows that microeconomic approaches have found fertile ground in a public health approach that ‘blames’ individual choices for HIV transmission. Despite their attractiveness, however, these approaches fail to explain contemporary patterns of HIV prevalence, illustrating the importance of factors that are excluded from the standard micro-economic approach. Part II of the book looks at our problems in understanding the economic impact of AIDS, and explains why economists cannot agree if epidemic disease is a good or bad thing for economic development. In both sections of the book, the potential for alternative approaches is shown, and the book ends by arguing that a political economy approach can bring meaningful insights to our understanding of the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS.


Author : Deborah Johnston
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2013-05-29
Page : 206
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1135035822
Description :


This book explains how, and why, economics has been applied to a terrible pandemic, using a range of examples mostly drawn from the region most affected, sub-Saharan Africa. Part I shows that microeconomic approaches have found fertile ground in a public health approach that ‘blames’ individual choices for HIV transmission. Despite their attractiveness, however, these approaches fail to explain contemporary patterns of HIV prevalence, illustrating the importance of factors that are excluded from the standard micro-economic approach. Part II of the book looks at our problems in understanding the economic impact of AIDS, and explains why economists cannot agree if epidemic disease is a good or bad thing for economic development. In both sections of the book, the potential for alternative approaches is shown, and the book ends by arguing that a political economy approach can bring meaningful insights to our understanding of the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS.


Author : Bloom Godwin
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 1997
Page : 263
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 :
Description :


This book fills an important gap by identifying the economic roots of HIV and AIDS in South and South East Asia. The Economics of HIV and AIDS contains case studies from India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Four of these are based on primary data and are original. Each uses common economicconcepts to assess the costs of HIV and AIDS and explores the impact of HIV and AIDS on economic growth, and the economic roots of the two diseases. This book provides a new perspective on the economic impact of the HIV and AIDS epidemic by emphasizing the class differentials both in thevulnerability of social groups and their access to services.


Author : Markus Haacker
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-06-16
Page : 304
Category :
ISBN 13 : 0198718047
Description :


The global response to HIV/AIDS has been a major aspect of global health and development policy over the last three decades. The book illustrates the devastating health impacts of the epidemic, with life expectancy in some countries falling to the lowest levels observed anywhere, and the remarkable success of the global HIV/AIDS response in reversing such extreme outcomes. Concerns about the implications of HIV/AIDS for economic development have played a role in motivating the global HIV/AIDS response. However, evidence on the impacts of HIV/AIDS on economic growth or poverty is weak, and the magnitude and relevance of such economic effects appears trivial compared to the consequences for life and health. Because of the success in extending access to treatment globally, HIV/AIDS has effectively transitioned into a chronic disease. This means that HIV/AIDS absorbs not only a substantial chunk of current global and national financial resources, but that these spending needs are projected to persist over decades. The costs of the HIV/AIDS response thus resemble a long-term financial liability, shaped by past and current policies. Relatedly, the calculus of cost-effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions has changed. People who become infected with HIV can now expect to not die because of AIDS; at the same time, each HIV infection results in medical needs and expenditures extending over decades. The book presents a framework for integrating these financial consequences and the transmission dynamics of HIV in the analysis of cost-effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions and in the design of HIV/AIDS programs.


Author : Detlef Schwefel
Reiner Leidl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 364
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 3642840892
Description :


From the early days of its recognized occurrence, AIDS has been per ceived as posing tremendous threats, burdens and challenges to human beings. Individuals, societies and, in a global point of view, mankind are affected by the effects of the HN infection, the nature and extent of which is still unclear in many ways. In the beginning only biomedical and epidemiological analyses of the problem were the top research priori ties, the former laden with great hopes that it may soon be possible to stop the spread of the disease and to overcome its physical impact. Yet it soon became clear that AIDS would be something to be reckoned and coped with on a long-term basis, making a thorough investigation of its impact absolutely mandatory. AIDS has serious economic consequences. Taken seriously, they can not be confined to predictions of costs intended to support the AIDS issue in the struggle for resources. Besides cost calculations - a method ologically tricky and wide-ranging topic in itself -and their application to cost-effectiveness and other analyses, economic issues include identify ing and assessing patterns of care, analyzing problems of financing, exploring impacts on markets other than health care, and modelling scenarios for future developments and strategies. At present, the eco nomic aspects of AIDS still constitute a very recent topic in European health economics and health systems research. Many projects are just about to start, and there must be a better exchange of information between research groups.


Author : Jean-Paul Moatti
Publisher :
Release : 2003
Page : 486
Category : AIDS (Disease)
ISBN 13 : 9782910143213
Description :


This book collects studies performed mainly with the support of the Agence Nationale de Recherche contre le Sida (French French National Agency of Research against AIDS). The purpose is to analyse the conditions to improve access to drugs against AIDS in developing countries, to urge on international agencies determinedly support patients treatment. The first part deals with the market of antiretrovirals and patents : How the prices drop taked place in 1998-2002, what were the debates about Intellectual Property Rights and WTO, what happened in countries as Brazil and Thailand? The second part deals with the impact of AIDS epidemic in the developing world and the role of therapeutic strategies to lower this impact. The book backs up the argument that the impact has been undersestimated and theses strategies are feasible.


Author : D. Mahadea
International AIDS Economics Network (IAEN) Symposium on the Economics of HIV-AIDS in Developing Countries. 2000, Durban
Publisher :
Release : 2000
Page : 213
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Alan Whiteside OBE
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2008-01-24
Page : 168
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0191578185
Description :


HIV/AIDS is without doubt the worst epidemic to hit humankind since the Black Death. The first case was identified in 1981; by 2004 it was estimated that about 40 million people were living with the disease, and about 20 million had died. Despite rapid scientific advances there is still no cure and the drugs are expensive and toxic. Because of controversies and taboos surrounding safe drug usage and prostitution, the numbers of people infected continues to rise. However, it is in the developing world and especially parts of Africa that the real catastrophe is unfolding. In some of the worst affected countries life expectancy has plummeted to below 35 years, which has led to a serious decline in economic growth, a sharp rise in orphaning, and the imminent collapse of health care systems. The news is not all bleak though. There have been unprecedented breakthroughs in understanding diseases and developing drugs. Because the disease is so closely linked to sexual activity and drug use, the need to understand and change behaviour has caused us to reassess what it means to be human and how we should operate in the globalising world. This Very Short Introduction provides an introduction to the disease, tackling the science, the international and local politics, the fascinating demographics, and the devastating consequences of the disease, and explores how we have — and must — respond. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2000
Page :
Category : AIDS (Disease)
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Benjamin Coriat
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2008-01-01
Page : 352
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 1848444893
Description :


The issue of universal and free access to treatment is now a fundamental goal of the international community. Based on original data and field studies from Brazil, Thailand, India and Sub-Saharan Africa under the aegis of ANRS (the French nationalagency for research on Aids and viral hepatitis, this timely and significant book both assesses the progress made in achieving this objective and presents a rigorous diagnosis of the obstacles that remain. Placing particular emphasis on the constraints imposed by TRIPS as well as the poor state of most public health systems in Southern countries, the contributing authors provide a comprehensive analysis of the huge barriers that have yet to be overcome in order to attain free access to care and offer innovative suggestions of how they might be confronted. In doing this, the book renews our understanding of the political economy of HIV/AIDS in these vast regions, where the disease continues to spread with devastating social and economic consequences. This volume will be a valuable addition to the current literature on HIV/AIDS in developing countries and will find widespread appeal amongst students and academics studying economics, sociology and public health. It will also be of interest to international organizations and professional associations involved in the fight against pandemics.


Author : Stefano Michele Bertozzi
Publisher :
Release : 1995
Page : 173
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :


(Cont.) The descriptive data thus gathered can then be used to more effectively target interventions to prevent further HIV spread and alleviate the impact of HIV/AIDS. Two models are presented which can be used to optimize the cost-efficiency of serologic surveys by improving the selection of sample size and testing method. The conclusions draw upon the findings of the three case studies. They place the fight against AIDS in its social and economic context in Africa; outline the general rules that govern the use of HIV testing technology; and underscore the need for cost-effectiveness assessments to improve the efficiency of resource allocation by national AIDS programs.


Author : Marilyn Waring
Robert Carr
Publisher : Commonwealth Secretariat
Release : 2011
Page : 94
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 1849290199
Description :


At the centre of the HIV/AIDS response are the 12 million people who need care and treatment. Yet their carers are often invisible to the system that relies on them. Focusing on the carer directs assistance where it is most effective and most needed, will respect human rights, and will help achieve the millennium development goals in health.


Author : International Monetary Fund
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2004-11-19
Page : 344
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9781589063600
Description :


This paper analyzes the macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS. The paper highlights that the mortality and morbidity associated with AIDS make it unlike most other types of sickness and disease. The paper describes the most common approaches used in accounting for growth in the context of an HIV/AIDS epidemic. The impact of HIV/AIDS on education and the accumulation of human capital is discussed. The paper also discusses the impact of HIV/AIDS on the public sector, and elaborates certain demographic events specific to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.


Author : Savio P. Falleiro
Publisher : SAGE Publications India
Release : 2014-07-08
Page : 260
Category : Health & Fitness
ISBN 13 : 9351500896
Description :


This book addresses an issue of international, national and local importance—HIV/AIDS—an issue where the predominant attention is on the humanitarian and developmental catastrophe that it is accused of leading to, particularly in the developing world. The book, based on a first-of-its-kind study conducted in Goa (India), will be of great assistance to researchers as well as policy makers. It will assist policy makers in assessing the (in)adequacy of the measures taken by the government, NGOs and donors in combating the scourge of HIV/AIDS.


Author : Patrick Leoni
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2010
Page : 196
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9781607415879
Description :


The fight against HIV/AIDS is, above all, an economic issue. The scale of the pandemic and the lack of funds needed to eradicate it require identifying key issues in field interventions and optimal economic policies to fund them. In developing countries, where the epidemic is reaching its peak, the magnitude of governmental and international interventions triggers major crowding-out effects on every other economic decision of those countries, and thus HIV/AIDS affects every aspect of social life. Economic policies alleviating crowding-out effects are thus paramount to foster the economic growth of developing countries and, in turn, their future welfare. Economic issues in the fight against HIV/AIDS are also a primary concern for developed countries, in charge not only of subsidizing current treatment campaigns domestically but also of funding R&D in innovative treatments. Designing optimal incentives for public and private agencies to reduce the costs of available medicines, and to develop innovative treatments such as a therapeutic vaccine, is as important as drug delivery or any other field campaign to eventually eradicate the disease.More than two decades of practical implementation of economic policies and academic research have shown many pitfalls in current policies, and they have made it possible to identify previously missed issues. This book shall provide a recent and comprehensive coverage of those policies, and it shall analyze their economic efficiency as well as ways of improvement using state-of-the-art academic findings in Economics and Finance. The authors discuss in detail and provide new economic analyses on the following issues: • The nation-wide and international economic consequences of the spread of the disease . Market incentives and disincentives to produce and to develop treatment technologies and • The nature and optimality of economic policies devoted to fighting the disease in developing countries, as well as the enhancement of current policies through financial innovations.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2002
Page : 250
Category : AIDS (Disease)
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Tomas J. Philipson
Richard A. Posner
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 1993
Page : 264
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9780674707382
Description :


Neither liberal nor conservative, yet on the whole skeptical about governmental involvement in the epidemic, this book is certain to be controversial, but its injection of hard-headed economic thinking into the AIDS debate is long overdue.


Author : G. Mwabu
D. Mahadea
Publisher :
Release : 2000
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Jacob Bor
Publisher :
Release : 2013
Page : 338
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies (U.S.)
Publisher :
Release : 2002
Page : 164
Category : AIDS (Disease)
ISBN 13 :
Description :