Evolution Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Brian Charlesworth
Deborah Charlesworth
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017-06-22
Page : 160
Category :
ISBN 13 : 0198804369
Description :


Less than 450 years ago, all European scholars believed that the Earth was at the centre of a Universe that was at most a few million miles in extent, and that the planets, sun, and stars all rotated around this centre. Less than 250 years ago, they believed that the Universe was createdessentially in its present state about 6000 years ago. Even less than 150 years ago, the view that living species were the result of special creation by God was still dominant. The recognition by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace of the mechanism of evolution by natural selection hascompletely transformed our understanding of the living world, including our own origins. In this Very Short Introduction Brian and Deborah Charlesworth provide a clear and concise summary of the process of evolution by natural selection, and how natural selection gives rise to adaptations and eventually, over many generations, to new species. They introduce the central concepts of thefield of evolutionary biology, as they have developed since Darwin and Wallace on the subject, over 140 years ago, and discuss some of the remaining questions regarding processes. They highlight the wide range of evidence for evolution, and the importance of an evolutionary understanding forinstance in combating the rapid evolution of resistance by bacteria to antibiotics and of HIV to antiviral drugs. This reissue includes some key updates to the main text and a completely updated Further Reading section.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Author : Martin N. Muller
Richard W. Wrangham
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2017
Page : 848
Category : Chimpanzees
ISBN 13 : 067496795X
Description :


Knowledge of wild chimpanzees has expanded dramatically. This volume, edited by Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham, and David Pilbeam, brings together scientists who are leading a revolution to discover and explain human uniqueness, by studying our closest living relatives. Their conclusions may transform our understanding of human evolution.


Author : Douglas Futuyma
Mark Kirkpatrick
Publisher : Sinauer
Release : 2017-06-08
Page : 594
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9781605356051
Description :


This new edition of Evolution features a new coauthor: Mark Kirkpatrick (The University of Texas at Austin) offers additional expertise in evolutionary genetics and genomics, the fastest-developing area of evolutionary biology. Directed toward an undergraduate audience, the text emphasizes the interplay between theory and empirical tests of hypotheses, thus acquainting students with the process of science.


Author : Paul R. Niven
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-08-04
Page : 368
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1118726316
Description :


The best plan is useless without effective execution The future of business has become so unpredictable that your five-year plan may be irrelevant next week. To succeed in the modern market, you must constantly assess your progress and adapt on the fly. Agility, flexibility, continual learning, and adaptation are the new rules of business success. A differentiating strategy is crucial, but it will only lead to competitive advantage if you execute it flawlessly. You'll succeed only if you have the right insight for strategic planning and the agility to execute your plan. Balanced Scorecard Evolution: A Dynamic Approach to Strategy Execution provides the latest theory and practice from strategic planning, change management, and strategy execution to ensure your business is flexible, future ready, and primed for exceptional execution. Author Paul R. Niven guides you through the new principles of The Balanced Scorecard and shows you how to apply them to your planning and strategy execution endeavors. Read case studies that illustrate the theory and practice of strategic agility and execution Learn how to create the objectives, measures, targets, and strategic initiatives that can make your plan a reality Use the latest change management techniques to boost strategy execution success Gain the knowledge and tools you need to face your challenges head-on Motivate your employees to change behaviors toward plan accommodation Making a plan isn't enough. You must actually take steps to implement your plan, and this requires excellent leadership skills. Change can be hard, and your organization may be resistant. Balanced Scorecard Evolution: A Dynamic Approach to Strategy Execution provides everything you need to make things happen.


Author : P.D. MacLean
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1990-01-31
Page : 672
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9780306431685
Description :


"This is MacLean's major work on the evolutionary development of the human brain. In its evolution the human forebrain expands along the lines of three basic formations that anatomical and biochemically reflect an ancestral relationship, respectively, to reptiles, early mammals, and late mammals. MacLean describes this as the Triune Brain."--Amazon.com viewed July 29, 2020


Author : Stuart A. Kauffman
Member of the Santa Fe Institute and Professor of Biochemistry Stuart A Kauffman
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 1993
Page : 709
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780195079517
Description :


This monograph extends the basic concepts of Darwinian evolution to accommodate recent findings and perspectives from the fields of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics. It explains how complex systems, contrary to expectations, can spontaneously exhibit degrees of order.


Author : Brian Golding
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1994-12-31
Page : 249
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780412053917
Description :


All organisms--from the AIDS virus, to bacteria, to fish, to humans--must evolve to survive. Despite the central place of evolution within biology, there are many things that are still poorly understood. For Charles Darwin, the driving force behind all evolution was natural selection. More recently, evolutionary biologists have considered that many mutations are essentially neutral with respect to natural selection. Many questions remain. Are molecular differences between species adaptive? Are differences within species adaptive? Modern biotechnology has enabled us to identify precisely the actual DNA structure from many individuals within a population, and thus to see how these DNA sequences have changed over time and to answer some of these questions. At the same time, this knowledge poses new challenges to our ability to understand the observed patterns. This exciting volume outlines the biological problems, provides new perspectives on theoretical treatments of the consequences of natural selection, examines the consequences of molecular data, and relates molecular events to speciation. Every evolutionary biologist will find it of interest.


Author : Andrew W. Lo
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2017-05-02
Page : 483
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0691135142
Description :


A new, evolutionary explanation of markets and investor behavior Half of all Americans have money in the stock market, yet economists can't agree on whether investors and markets are rational and efficient, as modern financial theory assumes, or irrational and inefficient, as behavioral economists believe. The debate is one of the biggest in economics, and the value or futility of investment management and financial regulation hangs on the answer. In this groundbreaking book, Andrew Lo transforms the debate with a powerful new framework in which rationality and irrationality coexist--the Adaptive Markets Hypothesis. Drawing on psychology, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and other fields, Adaptive Markets shows that the theory of market efficiency is incomplete. When markets are unstable, investors react instinctively, creating inefficiencies for others to exploit. Lo's new paradigm explains how financial evolution shapes behavior and markets at the speed of thought--a fact revealed by swings between stability and crisis, profit and loss, and innovation and regulation. An ambitious new answer to fundamental questions about economics and investing, Adaptive Markets is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand how markets really work


Author : Robert Kurzban
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2012-05-27
Page : 288
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 0691154392
Description :


We're all hypocrites. Why? Hypocrisy is the natural state of the human mind. Robert Kurzban shows us that the key to understanding our behavioral inconsistencies lies in understanding the mind's design. The human mind consists of many specialized units designed by the process of evolution by natural selection. While these modules sometimes work together seamlessly, they don't always, resulting in impossibly contradictory beliefs, vacillations between patience and impulsiveness, violations of our supposed moral principles, and overinflated views of ourselves. This modular, evolutionary psychological view of the mind undermines deeply held intuitions about ourselves, as well as a range of scientific theories that require a "self" with consistent beliefs and preferences. Modularity suggests that there is no "I." Instead, each of us is a contentious "we"--a collection of discrete but interacting systems whose constant conflicts shape our interactions with one another and our experience of the world. In clear language, full of wit and rich in examples, Kurzban explains the roots and implications of our inconsistent minds, and why it is perfectly natural to believe that everyone else is a hypocrite.


Author : Jürgen Habermas
Publisher : Boston : Beacon Press
Release : 1979
Page : 239
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 080701513X
Description :


Five essays provide an overview of the emerging research program for analyzing contemporary society from a historical and pragmatic standpoint within the rules of empirical science


Author : Samir Okasha
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2008
Page : 263
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9780199556717
Description :


"Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? Samir Okasha provides a comprehensive analysis of the debate in evolutionary biology over the levels of selection, focusing on conceptual, philosophical and foundational questions. A systematic framework is developed for thinking about natural selection acting at multiple levels of the biological hierarchy; the framework is then used to help resolve outstanding issues. Considerable attention is paid to the concept of causality as it relates to the levels of selection, in particular the idea that natural selection at one hierarchical level can have effects that 'filter' up or down to other levels. Unlike previous work in this area by philosophers of science, full account is taken of the recent biological literature on 'major evolutionary transitions' and the recent resurgence of interest in multi-level selection theory among biologists. Other biological topics discussed include Price's equation, kin and group selection, the gene's eye view, evolutionary game theory, outlaws and selfish genetic elements, species and clade selection, and the evolution of individuality. Philosophical topics discussed include reductionism and holism, causation and correlation, the nature of hierarchical organization, and realism and pluralism."--Pre-title page.


Author : Alfred Russel Wallace
Publisher : Erasmus Press
Release : 2020-08-12
Page : 260
Category : Religion
ISBN 13 : 1645427056
Description :


Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913), co-discoverer of natural selection, was second only to Charles Darwin as the 19th century’s most noted English naturalist. Yet his belief in spiritualism caused him to be ridiculed and dismissed by many, leaving him a comparatively obscure and misunderstood figure. In this volume Wallace is finally allowed to speak in his own defense through his grand evolutionary synthesis The World of Life published over a century ago in 1910. More than just a reprinting of a near-forgotten work, Michael A. Flannery places Wallace in historical context and includes the very latest historiography relating to both Darwin and Wallace in his detailed introduction. Flannery exposes Charles Darwin’s now-famous theory of evolution as little more than a naturalistic cover for an extreme philosophical materialism borrowed as a youth from Edinburgh radicals. This is juxtaposed by his sympathetic account of what he calls Wallace’s intelligent evolution, a thoroughly teleological alternative to Darwin’s stochastic processes. Though based upon very different formulations of natural selection, the Wallace/Darwin dispute as presented by Flannery shows a metaphysical clash of worldviews coextensive with modern evolutionary theory itself—design and purpose versus randomness and chance. This book is for anyone seeking to understand the historical and philosophical roots of a controversy that still rages today. This book contains an abridgement of Alfred Russel Wallace's The World of Life and Reverend John Magens Mello's essay, “The Mystery of Life and Mind.” Michael A. Flannery is Professor Emeritus, UAB Libraries, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Professor Flannery has published extensively in medical history and bioethics, winning the prestigious Edward Kremers Award in 2001 for distinguished writing by an American from the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, the Murray Gottlieb Prize in history by the Medical Library Association in 2002, and the 2006 Publishers Award of the Archivists and Librarians in the History of Health Sciences. This is his tenth book.


Author : Elliott Sober
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2008-03-27
Page : 412
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780521692748
Description :


How should the concept of evidence be understood? And how does the concept of evidence apply to the controversy about creationism as well as to work in evolutionary biology about natural selection and common ancestry? In this rich and wide-ranging book, Elliott Sober investigates general questions about probability and evidence and shows how the answers he develops to those questions apply to the specifics of evolutionary biology. Drawing on a set of fascinating examples, he analyzes whether claims about intelligent design are untestable; whether they are discredited by the fact that many adaptations are imperfect; how evidence bears on whether present species trace back to common ancestors; how hypotheses about natural selection can be tested, and many other issues. His book will interest all readers who want to understand philosophical questions about evidence and evolution, as they arise both in Darwin's work and in contemporary biological research.


Author : Jonathan Tweet
Publisher : Feiwel & Friends
Release : 2016-09-06
Page : 40
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
ISBN 13 : 1250134110
Description :


Where did we come from? It's a simple question, but not so simple an answer to explain—especially to young children. Charles Darwin's theory of common descent no longer needs to be a scientific mystery to inquisitive young readers. Meet Grandmother Fish. Told in an engaging call and response text where a child can wiggle like a fish or hoot like an ape and brought to life by vibrant artwork, Grandmother Fish takes children and adults through the history of life on our planet and explains how we are all connected. The book also includes comprehensive backmatter, including: - An elaborate illustration of the evolutionary tree of life - Helpful science notes for parents - How to explain natural selection to a child


Author : Mark Ridley
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 2003-11-07
Page : 784
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9781405103459
Description :


Mark Ridley's Evolution has become the premier undergraduate text in the study of evolution. Readable and stimulating, yet well-balanced and in-depth, this text tells the story of evolution, from the history of the study to the most revent developments in evolutionary theory. The third edition of this successful textbook features updates and extensive new coverage. The sections on adaptation and diversity have been reorganized for improved clarity and flow, and a completely updated section on the evolution of sex and the inclusion of more plant examples have all helped to shape this new edition. Evolution also features strong, balanced coverage of population genetics, and scores of new applied plant and animal examples make this edition even more accessible and engaging. Dedicated website – provides an interactive experience of the book, with illustrations downloadable to PowerPoint, and a full supplemental package complementing the book – www.blackwellpublishing.com/ridley. Margin icons – indicate where there is relevant information included in the dedicated website. Two new chapters – one on evolutionary genomics and one on evolution and development bring state-of-the-art information to the coverage of evolutionary study. Two kinds of boxes – one featuring practical applications and the other related information, supply added depth without interrupting the flow of the text. Margin comments – paraphrase and highlight key concepts. Study and review questions – help students review their understanding at the end of each chapter, while new challenge questions prompt students to synthesize the chapter concepts to reinforce the learning at a deeper level.


Author : Margaret Mead
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-07-12
Page : 471
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1351526081
Description :


Margaret Mead once said, "I have spent most of my life studying the lives of other peoples--faraway peoples--so that Americans might better understand themselves." Continuities in Cultural Evolution is evidence of this devotion. All of Mead's efforts were intended to help others learn about themselves and work toward a more humane and socially responsible society. Scientist, writer, explorer, and teacher, Mead brought the serious work of anthropology into the public consciousness. This volume began as the Terry Lectures, given at Yale in 1957 and was not published until 1964, after extensive reworking. The time she spent on revision is evidence of the importance Mead attached to the subject: the need to develop a truly evolutionary vision of human culture and society. This was desirable in her eyes both in order to reinforce the historical dimension in our ideas about human culture, and to preserve the relevance of historical and cultural diversity to social, economic, and political action. Given the present state of academic and public discourse alike, this volume speaks to us in a language we badly need to recover.


Author : N. Shikazono
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2003-07-01
Page : 478
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780080532431
Description :


Many Neogene hydrothermal ore deposits have been formed on and near the Japanese islands from the middle Miocene to the present day and today many subaerial and submarine active geothermal systems are active. This book summarizes the geochemical and tectonic features, and the evolution of various types of ore deposits and current island arc and backarc hydrothermal systems in Japan starting with the Mesozoic.


Author : Terrence William Deacon
Publisher : W W Norton & Company Incorporated
Release : 1998
Page : 527
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
ISBN 13 : 9780393317541
Description :


Discusses the evolution of language from the viewpoint of symbolic reference as opposed to the conventional grammar-based theories


Author :
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2003-12-09
Page : 416
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0080493742
Description :


Parasitology continues to benefit from taking an evolutionary approach to its study. Tree construction, character-mapping, tree-based evolutionary interpretation, and other developments in molecular and morphological phylogenetics have had a profound influence and have shed new light on the very nature of host-parasite relations and their coevolution. Life cycle complexity, parasite ecology and the origins and evolution of parasitism itself are all underpinned by an understanding of phylogeny. The Evolution of Parasitism - A Phylogenetic Perspective aims to bring together a range of articles that exemplifies the phylogenetic approach as applied to various disciplines within parasitology and as applied by parasitologists. Unified by the use of phylogenies, this book tackles a wide variety of parasite-specific biological problems across a diverse range of taxa. Includes important contributions from leading minds in the field such as Serge Morand, Francisco Ayala and Mark Blaxter, among others Second in the ISI Parasitology List in 2002 with an Impact Factor of 4.818 Series encompasses over 35 years of parasitology coverage


Author : Conor Ryan
Michael O'Neill
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-11
Page : 497
Category : Computers
ISBN 13 : 3319787179
Description :


This handbook offers a comprehensive treatise on Grammatical Evolution (GE), a grammar-based Evolutionary Algorithm that employs a function to map binary strings into higher-level structures such as programs. GE's simplicity and modular nature make it a very flexible tool. Since its introduction almost twenty years ago, researchers have applied it to a vast range of problem domains, including financial modelling, parallel programming and genetics. Similarly, much work has been conducted to exploit and understand the nature of its mapping scheme, triggering additional research on everything from different grammars to alternative mappers to initialization. The book first introduces GE to the novice, providing a thorough description of GE along with historical key advances. Two sections follow, each composed of chapters from international leading researchers in the field. The first section concentrates on analysis of GE and its operation, giving valuable insight into set up and deployment. The second section consists of seven chapters describing radically different applications of GE. The contributions in this volume are beneficial to both novices and experts alike, as they detail the results and researcher experiences of applying GE to large scale and difficult problems. Topics include: • Grammar design • Bias in GE • Mapping in GE • Theory of disruption in GE · Structured GE · Geometric semantic GE · GE and semantics · Multi- and Many-core heterogeneous parallel GE · Comparing methods to creating constants in GE · Financial modelling with GE · Synthesis of parallel programs on multi-cores · Design, architecture and engineering with GE · Computational creativity and GE · GE in the prediction of glucose for diabetes · GE approaches to bioinformatics and system genomics · GE with coevolutionary algorithms in cybersecurity · Evolving behaviour trees with GE for platform games · Business analytics and GE for the prediction of patient recruitment in multicentre clinical trials