Expert Testimony On The Psychology Of Eyewitness Identification Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Brian L. Cutler
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2009-08-27
Page : 288
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 0190450282
Description :


Eyewitness testimony is highly compelling in a criminal trial, and can have an indelible impact on jurors. However, two decades of research on the subject have shown us that eyewitnesses are sometimes wrong, even when they are highly confident that they are making correct identifications. This book brings together an impressive group of researchers and practicing attorneys to provide current overviews and critiques of key topics in eyewitness testimony.


Author : Brian L. Cutler
Steven D. Penrod
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1995-08-25
Page : 290
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 9780521445726
Description :


Examines traditional safeguards against mistaken eyewitness identification.


Author : James Michael Lampinen
Jeffrey S. Neuschatz
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2012-04-27
Page : 346
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1136247122
Description :


This volume provides a tutorial review and evaluation of scientific research on the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness identification. The book starts with the perspective that there are a variety of conceptual and empirical problems with eyewitness identification as a form of forensic evidence, just as there are a variety of problems with other forms of forensic evidence. There is then an examination of the important results in the study of eyewitness memory and the implications of this research for psychological theory and for social and legal policy. The volume takes the perspective that research on eyewitness identification can be seen as the paradigmatic example of how psychological science can be successfully applied to real-world problems.


Author : Mark Costanzo
Daniel Krauss
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2020-07-24
Page : 328
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1000106217
Description :


During the past two decades, the frequency and range of expert testimony by psychologists have increased dramatically. Courts now routinely hear expert testimony from clinical, cognitive, developmental, and social psychologists. Expert Psychological Testimony for the Courts provides a comprehensive, research-based analysis of the content, ethics, and impact of expert testimony. This book features leading scholars who have contributed to the scientific foundation for expert testimony and who have also served as expert witnesses. The opening chapter explores issues surrounding the admissibility of expert testimony, and the closing chapter explores the ethics and limits of psychological testimony. Each of the intervening chapters focuses on a different area of expert testimony: forensic identification, police interrogations and false confessions, eyewitness identification, sexual harassment, mitigation in capital cases, the insanity defense, battered women, future dangerousness, and child custody. These chapters describe the typical content of expert testimony in a particular area, evaluate the scientific foundation for testimony, examine how jurors respond to expert testimony, and suggest ways in which legal standards or procedures might be modified in light of psychological research. This groundbreaking book should be on the shelf of every social scientist interested in the legal system and every trial attorney who is likely to retain a psychologist as an expert witness. It can also serve as a text for advanced courses in psychology, legal studies, criminal justice, law, and sociology.


Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-01-16
Page : 170
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 0309310628
Description :


Eyewitnesses play an important role in criminal cases when they can identify culprits. Estimates suggest that tens of thousands of eyewitnesses make identifications in criminal investigations each year. Research on factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness identification procedures has given us an increasingly clear picture of how identifications are made, and more importantly, an improved understanding of the principled limits on vision and memory that can lead to failure of identification. Factors such as viewing conditions, duress, elevated emotions, and biases influence the visual perception experience. Perceptual experiences are stored by a system of memory that is highly malleable and continuously evolving, neither retaining nor divulging content in an informational vacuum. As such, the fidelity of our memories to actual events may be compromised by many factors at all stages of processing, from encoding to storage and retrieval. Unknown to the individual, memories are forgotten, reconstructed, updated, and distorted. Complicating the process further, policies governing law enforcement procedures for conducting and recording identifications are not standard, and policies and practices to address the issue of misidentification vary widely. These limitations can produce mistaken identifications with significant consequences. What can we do to make certain that eyewitness identification convicts the guilty and exonerates the innocent? Identifying the Culprit makes the case that better data collection and research on eyewitness identification, new law enforcement training protocols, standardized procedures for administering line-ups, and improvements in the handling of eyewitness identification in court can increase the chances that accurate identifications are made. This report explains the science that has emerged during the past 30 years on eyewitness identifications and identifies best practices in eyewitness procedures for the law enforcement community and in the presentation of eyewitness evidence in the courtroom. In order to continue the advancement of eyewitness identification research, the report recommends a focused research agenda. Identifying the Culprit will be an essential resource to assist the law enforcement and legal communities as they seek to understand the value and the limitations of eyewitness identification and make improvements to procedures.


Author : L. Katz
J. Reid
Publisher : Center for Responsive Psychology
Release : 1978
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781555240417
Description :



Author : James M. Lampinen
Jeffrey S. Neuschatz
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2012
Page : 334
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1848728832
Description :


This volume provides a tutorial review and evaluation of scientific research on the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness identification. The book starts with the perspective that there are a variety of conceptual and empirical problems with eyewitness identification as a form of forensic evidence, just as there are a variety of problems with other forms of forensic evidence. There is then an examination of the important results in the study of eyewitness memory and the implications of this research for psychological theory and for social and legal policy. The volume takes the perspective that research on eyewitness identification can be seen as the paradigmatic example of how psychological science can be successfully applied to real-world problems.


Author :
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 1999-12-01
Page : 51
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 0756709431
Description :


Written & approved by a multidisciplinary group of content-area experts incl. rep's. of law enforcement, the prosecution, the defense, & forensic science. Eyewitnesses frequently play a vital role in uncovering the truth about a crime. The evidence they provide can be critical in identifying, charging, & convicting suspected criminals. That is why it is absolutely essential that eyewitness evidence be accurate & reliable. Chapters: initial report of the first responder; mug books & composites; interviewing the witnesses by the followup investigator; field identification procedure; & procedures for eyewitness identification of suspects.


Author : Rod C. L. Lindsay
David F. Ross
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2014-05-12
Page : 1392
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1317777824
Description :


The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for the courts. For the first time, extensive reviews of factors influencing witnesses of all ages – children, adults, and the elderly – are compiled in a single pair of volumes. The disparate research currently being conducted in eyewitness memory in psychology, criminal justice, and legal studies is coherently presented in this work. Volume 1 covers memory for events. Volume 2 cover memory for people.


Author : Mark Costanzo
Daniel A. Krauss
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2007
Page : 321
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 9780805856477
Description :


During the past two decades, the frequency and range of expert testimony by psychologists have increased dramatically. Courts now routinely hear expert testimony from clinical, cognitive, developmental, and social psychologists. Expert Psychological Testimony for the Courts provides a comprehensive, research-based analysis of the content, ethics, and impact of expert testimony. This book features leading scholars who have contributed to the scientific foundation for expert testimony and who have also served as expert witnesses. The opening chapter explores issues surrounding the admissibility of expert testimony, and the closing chapter explores the ethics and limits of psychological testimony. Each of the intervening chapters focuses on a different area of expert testimony: forensic identification, police interrogations and false confessions, eyewitness identification, sexual harassment, mitigation in capital cases, the insanity defense, battered women, future dangerousness, and child custody. These chapters describe the typical content of expert testimony in a particular area, evaluate the scientific foundation for testimony, examine how jurors respond to expert testimony, and suggest ways in which legal standards or procedures might be modified in light of psychological research. This groundbreaking book should be on the shelf of every social scientist interested in the legal system and every trial attorney who is likely to retain a psychologist as an expert witness. It can also serve as a text for advanced courses in psychology, legal studies, criminal justice, law, and sociology.


Author : Dr. Elizabeth Loftus
Katherine Ketcham
Publisher : St. Martin's Press
Release : 2015-06-02
Page : 312
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 1250086310
Description :


"The study of memory had become my specialty, my passion. In the next few years I wrote dozens of papers about how memory works and how it fails, but unlike most researchers studying memory, my work kept reaching out into the real world. To what extent, I wondered, could a person's memory be shaped by suggestion? When people witness a serious automobile accident, how accurate is their recollection of the facts? If a witness is questioned by a police officer, will the manner of questioning alter the representation of the memory? Can memories be supplemented with additional, false information?" The "passion" Loftus describes in the lines above led her to a teaching career at the University of Washington and, perhaps more importantly, into hundreds of courtrooms as an expert witness on the fallibility of eyewitness accounts. As she has explained in numerous trials, and as she convincingly argues in this absorbing book, eyewitness accounts can be and often are so distorted that they no longer resemble the truth.


Author : Elizabeth F. Loftus
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 1996
Page : 253
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 9780674287778
Description :


By shedding light on the many factors that can intervene and create inaccurate testimony, Elizabeth Loftus illustrates how memory can be radically altered by the way an eyewitness is questioned, and how new memories can be implanted and old ones changed in subtle ways.


Author : A. Daniel Yarmey
Publisher : New York : Free Press
Release : 1979
Page : 285
Category : Law
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Ross
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1994-03-25
Page : 434
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 9780521432559
Description :


Investigates the factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.


Author : Siegfried L. Sporer
Roy S. Malpass
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2014-06-03
Page : 328
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1317824636
Description :


Why do police officers, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and others with an interest in eliciting accurate memory-based testimony need to inform themselves of the research literature in experimental psychology that addresses the question of witness memory? The answer is straightforward, from the perspective of a simple cost/benefit analysis. As with so many matters in the administration of public funds, effectiveness holds important rewards. Those who investigate crimes and decide which line of investigation to pursue and which line to postpone or set aside, necessarily make judgments about the likely guilt of suspects based on the information at hand. If they can make these judgments with a high degree of accuracy, everyone benefits. For many cases eyewitness identification is an important component of evidence, prosecution, and plea negotiation. If witness identification is correctly implemented, investigators and prosecutors can make their judgments effectively, and focus their resources more efficiently. A major component of effectiveness requires avoiding expending scarce resources on erroneous prosecutions. It is in everyone's interest to make the best use of the memory of witnesses: to preserve it without changing it; to render it maximally accessible; to provide an environment in which witnesses feel free to report their recollections; and to accurately assess the probable validity of the witness's report, regardless of the witness's certainty or doubts about its accuracy. This volume gathers evidence from various research domains on eyewitness testimony. Although many of the studies discussed deal with eyewitness identification, it is noteworthy that many of them also touch upon other areas of concern to eyewitness researchers, including chapters on: *voice recognition by humans and computers, with particularly detailed instructions on conducting voice "lineup," *differential aspects of recognition memory in children, *elderly eyewitness' memory, *problems of cross-racial identification, *psychological aspects of facial image reconstruction techniques, *person descriptions, *particular benefits of reinstating context as a means to improve eyewitness memory, *problems associated with various research paradigms in the eyewitness arena, and *recommendations on how to conduct lineups and photospreads and their proper evaluation. Differentiated from other literature on this topic by its non-technical language and accessibility to non-professionals, this volume covers a great deal of ground, raises a host of questions, settles some others, and points the way to more effective use and evaluation of what eyewitnesses have to say.


Author : R.C.L. Lindsay
David F. Ross
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2013-05-13
Page : 740
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1135608180
Description :


The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for th


Author : Michael P. Toglia
J. Don Read
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2007
Page : 703
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 :
Description :


The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for the courts. For the first time, extensive reviews of factors influencing witnesses of all ages—children, adults, and the elderly—are compiled in a single pair of volumes. The disparate research currently being conducted in eyewitness memory in psychology, criminal justice, and legal studies is coherently presented in this work. Controversial topics such as the use of hypnosis, false and recovered memories, the impact of stress, and the accuracy of psychologically impaired witnesses are expertly examined. Leading eyewitness researchers also discuss the subjects of conversational memory, alibi evidence, witness credibility, facial memory, earwitness testimony, lineup theory, and expert testimony. The impact of witness testimony in court is considered, and each volume concludes with a legal commentary chapter. The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology is an invaluable aid to researchers, legal scholars, and practicing lawyers who need access to the most recent research in the field, accompanied by the interpretations and commentary of many of the world's leading authorities on these topics.


Author : Brian L. Cutler
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2009-08-27
Page : 273
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 0195331974
Description :


Eyewitness testimony is highly compelling in a criminal trial, and can have an indelible impact on jurors. However, two decades of research on the subject have shown us that eyewitnesses are sometimes wrong, even when they are highly confident that they are making correct identifications. This book brings together an impressive group of researchers and practicing attorneys to provide current overviews and critiques of key topics in eyewitness testimony.


Author : Daniel A. Krauss
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2016-04-15
Page : 204
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1317073908
Description :


Expertise in Court: Perspectives on Testimony is the second of a two-volume set on the Psychology of the Courtroom. The authors, a renowned group of psychology and legal scholars, offer definitive coverage of the use of psychological expert testimony and evidence in a variety of legal contexts. They explore the controversies that surround it, from questions of its admissibility to its effects on eventual juror decisions. A wide range of topics are covered including system and estimator variables in eyewitness identification, expert testimony on psychological syndromes, the insanity defence and sexual harassment, how child sexual abuse is used by the courts, and recent research on false confessions. They also provide a comparative analysis exploring how different types of psychological expert testimony and evidence are used by different countries’ legal systems. All the chapters conclude by making specific recommendations for how psychological research and information could be better utilized by courts around the world.


Author : Jennifer L. Skeem
Kevin S. Douglas
Publisher : Guilford Press
Release : 2009-05-08
Page : 418
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1606233912
Description :


This rigorous yet reader-friendly book reviews the state of the science on a broad range of psychological issues commonly encountered in the forensic context. The goal is to help professionals and students differentiate between supported and unsupported psychological techniques--and steer clear of those that may be misleading or legally inadmissible. Leading contributors focus on controversial issues surrounding recovered memories, projective techniques, lie detection, child witnesses, offender rehabilitation, psychopathy, violence risk assessment, and more. With a focus on real-world legal situations, the book offers guidelines for presenting scientific evidence accurately and effectively in courtroom testimony and written reports.