Faithless Elector Challenge Goes To Supreme Court Lsb10462 Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

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Publisher :
Release : 2020
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Author : Mildred L. Amer
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2011-01
Page : 26
Category :
ISBN 13 : 1437938116
Description :


This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. This report provides a brief history of the creation, evolution, activities, and membership of the Senate Select Comm. on Ethics. First established in 1964 as the Select Comm. on Standards and Conduct, it was renamed the Select Comm. on Ethics in 1977 when its jurisdiction and procedures were expanded to help implement revisions to the Senate Code of Official Conduct. Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) Comm. Evolution and Background; (3) Jurisdiction; (4) The Senate Code of Conduct: First Code of Official Conduct; 1977, 1989, 1991, 1995, 2006, 2007 Revisions and Actions; (5) Procedural Reform: 1980, 1993, 1994, 1999 Actions; (6) Proposed Changes to the Senate Select Comm. on Ethics. Illustrations


Author : Ronald O'Rourke
Publisher :
Release : 2020-09-06
Page : 42
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The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines(SSNs) since FY1998. The one Virginia-class boat that the Navy is requesting for procurement inFY2021 would be the 33rd boat in the class. The Navy's FY2020 budget submission had projectedthat the Navy would request two Virginia-class boats in FY2021.Virginia-class boats scheduled for procurement in FY2019-FY2023 are being procured under amultiyear procurement (MYP) contract. Most Virginia-class boats procured in FY2019 andsubsequent years are to be built with the Virginia Payload Module (VPM), an additional, 84-footlong, mid-body section equipped with four large-diameter, vertical launch tubes for storing andlaunching additional Tomahawk missiles or other payloads.The Navy's force-level goal for SSNs is to achieve and maintain a force of 66 boats. The Navy'sSSN force included 50 boats at the end of FY2019. From the mid-2020s through the early 2030s, the number of SSNs is projected to experience a valley or trough, reaching a minimum of 42boats in FY2027-FY2028. Some observers are concerned that this projected valley could lead to aperiod of heightened operational strain for the SSN force, and perhaps a period of weakenedconventional deterrence against potential adversaries such as China. The projected SSN valleywas first identified by CRS in 1995 and has been discussed in CRS reports and testimony everyyear since then. The Navy's FY2020 30-year shipbuilding plan projects that, after reaching itsprojected 42-boat minimum, the SSN force will increase to 66 boats by FY2048


Author : Robert Keith
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2011-01
Page : 36
Category : Budget
ISBN 13 : 1437936237
Description :


This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Reconciliation is a procedure by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The Byrd rule (BR) provides 6 definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule, but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions. Contents of this report: (1) Intro.; (2) Legislative History of the BR; (3) Current Features of the BR; (4) Implementation of the BR: Points of Order; Waiver Motions; Instances in Which the BR was Not Invoked; (5) BR Controversies: Effects on Tax-Cut Legislation; Comprehensive Policy Changes: Health Care and Education Reform. Text of the BR. Charts and tables.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2017
Page : 13
Category : Budget deficits
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Author : Michael Faure
Marjan Peeters
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2011-01-01
Page : 304
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1849806020
Description :


This book sheds new light on the growing issue of using liability as a tool for both preventing and compensating for the damage caused by climate change. Michael Faure and Marjan Peeters have brought together a selection of expert contributors who explore a variety of both national and European perspectives on the topic. Climate change liability is no longer only a theoretical idea since climate changelitigation has become so hotly debated and this book examines to what extent it can be used for mitigation and adaptation issues. Chapters discuss the potential role of liability within various legal systems, like the national systems of the USA and The Netherlands, but also EU and ECHR law. Liability is outlined in a broad perspective since not only compensation for damage suffered by plaintiffs isdiscussed, but also the need for prevention in order to obtain a reduction of greenhouse gases.


Author : Congressional Research Service
Publisher : Independently Published
Release : 2019-01-10
Page : 40
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9781793450111
Description :


Central America has received renewed attention from U.S. policymakers over the past few years as the region has become a major transit corridor for illicit drugs and has surpassed Mexico as the largest source of irregular migration to the United States. These narcotics and migrant flows are the latest symptoms of deep-rooted challenges in several countries in the region, including widespread insecurity, fragile political and judicial systems, and high levels of poverty and unemployment. The U.S. government and partners in the region have begun to implement new initiatives intended to address those challenges, but living conditions in Central America have yet to improve significantly. U.S. Strategy for Engagement in Central America The Obama Administration determined it was in the national security interests of the United States to work with Central American governments to address their challenges. With congressional support, it launched a new U.S. Strategy for Engagement in Central America and significantly increased aid to the region. The strategy takes a broader, more comprehensive approach than previous U.S. initiatives in Central America and is based on the premise that efforts to promote prosperity, improve security, and strengthen governance are mutually reinforcing and of equal importance. The strategy focuses primarily on the "Northern Triangle" countries of Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras), which face the greatest challenges and are carrying out complementary efforts under their Alliance for Prosperity initiative. It also provides an overarching framework for U.S. engagement with the other countries in the region: Belize, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. The Trump Administration has maintained the U.S. Strategy for Engagement in Central America but has adjusted the initiative to place more emphasis on preventing illegal immigration, combating transnational crime, and generating export and investment opportunities for U.S. businesses. The Administration also has sought to scale back U.S. assistance to Central America, but Congress has rejected the majority of the proposed reductions.


Author : Ronald O'Rourke
Publisher : Independently Published
Release : 2020-12-19
Page : 38
Category :
ISBN 13 :
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The Navy began procuring Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class destroyers, also known as Aegis destroyers, in FY1985, and a total of 85 have been procured through FY2020, including three in FY2020. The Navy's proposed FY2021 budget requests funding for the procurement of two more DDG-51s, which would be the 86th and 87th ships in the class.DDG-51s are being procured in FY2018-FY2022 under a multiyear procurement (MYP) contract that Congress approved as part of its action on the Navy's FY2018 budget. DDG-51s procured in FY2017 and subsequent years are being built to a revised design, called the Flight III design, that incorporates a new and more capable radar called the Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) or SPY-6 radar.The Navy wants to procure the first ship of a new class of large surface combatants in FY2028. Under the Navy's plan, FY2027 would be the final year of DDG-51 procurement.


Author : Congressional Research Service
Publisher : Independently Published
Release : 2019-02-03
Page : 34
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781795735780
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As congressional policymakers continue to debate telecommunications reform, a major discussion point revolves around what approach should be taken to ensure unfettered access to the internet. The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality." There is no single accepted definition of "net neutrality," but most agree that any such definition should include the general principles that owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the internet should not control how consumers lawfully use that network, and they should not be able to discriminate against content provider access to that network. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in its February 26, 2015, open meeting voted 3-2, along party lines, to adopt open internet rules and released these rules on March 12, 2015. One of the most controversial aspects of the rules was the decision to reclassify broadband internet access service as telecommunications service under Title II, thereby subjecting internet service providers to a more stringent regulatory framework. With limited exceptions, the rules went into effect June 12, 2015. Various parties challenged the legality of the FCC's 2015 Open Internet Order, but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, in a June 14, 2016, ruling, voted (2-1) to uphold the legality of all aspects of the 2015 FCC Order. A petition for full U.S. Appeals Court review was denied and a subsequent petition for U.S. Supreme Court review was declined. The FCC on December 14, 2017, adopted (3-2) an Order that largely reverses the 2015 regulatory framework. The 2017 Order, among other things, reverses the 2015 classification of broadband internet access services as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act, shifts much of the oversight from the FCC to the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice, and provides for a less regulatory approach. This action has once again opened up the debate over what the appropriate framework is to ensure an open internet. Reaction to the 2017 Order has been mixed. Some see the 2015 FCC rules as regulatory overreach and welcome a more "light-touch" approach, which they feel will stimulate broadband investment, deployment, and innovation. Others support the 2015 regulations and feel that their reversal will result in a concentration of power to the detriment of content, services, and applications providers, as well as consumers, and refute the claim that these regulations have had a negative impact on broadband investment, expansion, or innovation. The 2017 Order was published in the Federal Register on February 22, 2018, and went into effect on June 11, 2018. Federal Register publication triggered timelines for both court challenges and Congressional Review Act (CRA) consideration. Petitions for review have been consolidated in the U.S. Court of Appeals, D.C. Circuit. CRA resolutions (S.J.Res. 52, H.J.Res. 129) to overturn the 2017 Order, were introduced in the 115th Congress. S.J.Res. 52 passed (52-47) the Senate, but H.J.Res. 129 was not considered in the House. The FCC's move to adopt the 2017 Order has reopened the debate over whether Congress should consider a measure to amend existing law to provide greater regulatory stability and guidance to the FCC regarding broadband access. Four bills (H.R. 4682, H.R. 6393, S. 2510, and S. 2853) to provide a regulatory framework to outline FCC authority over broadband internet access services were introduced, but not acted on, in the 115th Congress. Debate over what the appropriate regulatory framework should be for broadband access is expected to continue in the 116th Congress.


Author : Nak Publishing
Congressional Research Office
Publisher : Independently Published
Release : 2018-11-18
Page : 26
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781731519979
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Author : William H. Manz
Publisher : William S. Hein & Co., Inc.
Release : 2004
Page : 892
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 9780837734415
Description :


"In order to adapt to the rapid changes taking place in education, the innovative Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (Teach) Act was signed into law to make it easier for instructors to use copyrighted works in distance education. This valuable legislative history compiles all the material related to this important Act in a single source. The work includes the law itself, the reports, hearings, bill versions, the Register's Report, an the Congressional Record, as well as a legislative chronology, bibliography, and a master table of documents."


Author : Kenneth Katzman
Publisher :
Release : 2019-08-03
Page : 30
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781087103068
Description :


Kuwait has been pivotal to the decades-long U.S. effort to secure the Persian Gulf region because of its consistent cooperation with U.S. military operations in the region and its key location in the northern Gulf. Kuwait and the United States have a formal Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA), under which the United States maintains over 13,000 military personnel in country and prepositions military equipment to project power in the region. Only Germany, Japan, and South Korea host more U.S. troops than does Kuwait, which has hosted the operational command center for U.S.-led Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) that has combatted the Islamic State since 2014. Kuwait is a partner not only of the United States but also of the other hereditary monarchies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman). Kuwait is participating militarily in the Saudi-led coalition that is trying to defeat the Shia "Houthi" rebel movement in Yemen, but Kuwait tends to favor mediation of regional issues over the use of military force. Kuwait has sought to resolve the intra-GCC rift that erupted in June 2017 when Saudi Arabia and the UAE moved to isolate Qatar. Kuwait has refrained from intervening in Syria's civil war, instead hosting donor conferences for victims of the Syrian civil conflict, Iraq's recovery from the Islamic State challenge, and the effects of regional conflict on Jordan's economy. Kuwait has not followed some of the other GCC states in building quiet ties to the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in Israel. Kuwait generally supports U.S. efforts to counter Iran and has periodically arrested Kuwaiti Shias that the government says are spying for Iran, but it also engages Iran at high levels. U.S. government reports have praised steps by Kuwait to counter the financing of terrorism, but reports persist that wealthy Kuwaitis are still able to donate to extreme Islamist factions in the region. Kuwait has consistently engaged the post-Saddam governments in Baghdad in part to prevent any repeat of the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Experts have long assessed Kuwait's political system as a potential regional model for its successful incorporation of secular and Islamist political factions, both Shia and Sunni. However, since the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings, Kuwait has followed other GCC states in incarcerating and revoking the citizenship of social media and other critics. Kuwait's political stability has not been in question but long-standing parliamentary opposition to the ruling Sabah family's political dominance has in recent years included visible public pressure for political and economic reform. Parliamentary elections in July 2013 produced a National Assembly amenable to working with the ruling family, but the subsequent elections held in November 2016 returned to the body Islamist and liberal opponents of the Sabah family who held sway in earlier assemblies. Kuwait has increased its efforts to curb trafficking in persons over the past few years. Years of political paralysis contributed to economic stagnation relative to Kuwait's more economically vibrant Gulf neighbors such as Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Like the other GCC states, Kuwait has struggled with reduced income from oil exports during 20142018. Kuwait receives negligible amounts of U.S. foreign assistance, and has offset some of the costs of U.S. operations in the region since Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait.