Female Entrepreneurs In The Long Nineteenth Century Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Jennifer Aston
Catherine Bishop
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-08-30
Page : 480
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3030334120
Description :


"This volume challenges those who see gender inequalities invariably defining and constraining the lives of women. But it also broadens the conversation about the degree to which business is a gender-blind institution, owned and managed by entrepreneurs whose gender identities shape and reflect economic and cultural change." – Mary A. Yeager, Professor Emerita, University of California, Los Angeles This is the first book to consider nineteenth-century businesswomen from a global perspective, moving beyond European and trans-Atlantic frameworks to include many other corners of the world. The women in these pages, who made money and business decisions for themselves rather than as employees, ran a wide variety of enterprises, from micro-businesses in the ‘grey market’ to large factories with international reach. They included publicans and farmers, midwives and property developers, milliners and plumbers, pirates and shopkeepers. Female Entrepreneurs in the Long Nineteenth Century: A Global Perspective rejects the notion that nineteenth-century women were restricted to the home. Despite a variety of legal and structural restrictions, they found ways to make important but largely unrecognised contributions to economies around the world - many in business. Their impact on the economy and the economy’s impact on them challenge gender historians to think more about business and business historians to think more about gender and create a global history that is inclusive of multiple perspectives. Chapter one of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.


Author : Galina Ulianova
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2015-10-06
Page : 272
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 1317314204
Description :


This pioneering work comprehensively examines the history of female entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire during nineteenth-century industrial development.


Author : Kyriaki Hadjiafxendi
Patricia Zakreski
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2016-05-13
Page : 306
Category : Literary Criticism
ISBN 13 : 1317158652
Description :


Over the course of the nineteenth century, women in Britain participated in diverse and prolific forms of artistic labour. As they created objects and commodities that blurred the boundaries between domestic and fine art production, they crafted subjectivities for themselves as creative workers. By bringing together work by scholars of literature, painting, music, craft and the plastic arts, this collection argues that the constructed and contested nature of the female artistic professional was a notable aspect of debates about aesthetic value and the impact of industrial technologies. All the essays in this volume set up a productive inter-art dialogue that complicates conventional binary divisions such as amateur and professional, public and private, artistry and industry in order to provide a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between gender, artistic labour and creativity in the period. Ultimately, how women faced the pragmatics of their own creative labour as they pursued vocations, trades and professions in the literary marketplace and related art-industries reveals the different ideological positions surrounding the transition of women from industrious amateurism to professional artistry.


Author : Marian Sawer
Fiona Jenkins
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-05-21
Page : 197
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 303043236X
Description :


This collection turns a spotlight on gender innovation in the social sciences. Eighteen short and accessibly written case studies show how feminist and gender perspectives bring new concepts, theories and policy solutions. Scholars across five disciplines– economics, history, philosophy, political science and sociology – demonstrate how paying attention to gender can sharpen the focus of the social sciences, improve the public policy they inform, and change the way we measure things. Gender innovation provokes rethinking at both the core and the margins of established disciplines, sometimes developing alternative fields of research that chart new territory. These case studies celebrate the contribution of feminist and gender scholars and span topics ranging from budgeting, electoral systems and security studies to the ethics of care, emotional labor and climate change.


Author : Polly Thanailaki
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release :
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 : 3030662349
Description :



Author : Jennifer Aston
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-31
Page : 257
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3319308807
Description :


Aston challenges and reshapes the on-going debate concerning social status, economic opportunity, and gender roles in nineteenth-century society. Sources including trade directories, census returns, probate records, newspapers, advertisements, and photographs are analysed and linked to demonstrate conclusively that women in nineteenth-century England were far more prevalent in business than previously acknowledged. Moreover, women were able to establish and expand their businesses far beyond the scope of inter-generational caretakers in sectors of the economy traditionally viewed as unfeminine, and acquire the assets and possessions that were necessary to secure middle-class status. These women serve as a powerful reminder that the middle-class woman’s retreat from economic activity during the nineteenth-century, so often accepted as axiomatic, was not the case. In fact, women continued to act as autonomous and independent entrepreneurs, and used business ownership as a platform to participate in the economic, philanthropic, and political public sphere.


Author : Marguérite Corporaal
Christina Morin
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-07-20
Page : 258
Category : Literary Criticism
ISBN 13 : 3319525271
Description :


Exploring the effects of traveling, migration, and other forms of cultural contact, particularly within Europe, this edited collection explores the act of traveling and the representation of traveling by Irish men and women from diverse walks of life in the period between Grattan’s Parliament (1782) and World War I (1914). This was a period marked by an increasing physical and cultural mobility of Irish throughout Britain, Continental Europe, the Americas, and the Pacific. Travel was undertaken for a variety of reasons: during the Romantic period, the ‘Grand Tour’ and what is now sometimes referred to as medical tourism brought Irish artists and intellectuals to Europe, where cultural exchanges with other writers, artists, and thinkers inspired them to introduce novel ideas and cultural forms to their Irish audiences. Showing this impact of the nineteenth-century Irish across national borders and their engagement with global cultural and linguistic traditions, the volume will provide novel insights into the transcultural spheres of the arts, literature, politics, and translation in which they were active.


Author : AdrienneL. Childs
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-07-05
Page : 264
Category : Art
ISBN 13 : 1351573497
Description :


Compelling and troubling, colorful and dark, black figures served as the quintessential image of difference in nineteenth-century European art; the essays in this volume further the investigation of constructions of blackness during this period. This collection marks a phase in the scholarship on images of blacks that moves beyond undifferentiated binaries like ?negative? and ?positive? that fail to reveal complexities, contradictions, and ambiguities. Essays that cover the late eighteenth through the early twentieth century explore the visuality of blackness in anti-slavery imagery, black women in Orientalist art, race and beauty in fin-de-si?e photography, the French brand of blackface minstrelsy, and a set of little-known images of an African model by Edvard Munch. In spite of the difficulty of resurrecting black lives in nineteenth-century Europe, one essay chronicles the rare instance of an American artist of color in mid-nineteenth-century Europe. With analyses of works ranging from G?cault's Raft of the Medusa, to portraits of the American actor Ira Aldridge, this volume provides new interpretations of nineteenth-century representations of blacks.


Author : Pete Newbon
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-04
Page : 357
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 1137408146
Description :


This book explores the evolution of male writers marked by peculiar traits of childlike immaturity. The ‘Boy-Man’ emerged from the nexus of Rousseau’s counter-Enlightenment cultural primitivism, Sensibility’s ‘Man of Feeling’, the Chattertonian poet maudit, and the Romantic idealisation of childhood. The Romantic era saw the proliferation of boy-men, who congregated around such metropolitan institutions as The London Magazine. These included John Keats, Leigh Hunt, Charles Lamb, Hartley Coleridge, Thomas De Quincey and Thomas Hood. In the period of the French Revolution, terms of childishness were used against such writers as Wordsworth, Keats, Hunt and Lamb as a tool of political satire. Yet boy-men writers conversely used their amphibian child-adult literary personae to critique the masculinist ideologies of their era. However, the growing cultural and political conservatism of the nineteenth century, and the emergence of a canon of serious literature, inculcated the relegation of the boy-men from the republic of letters.


Author : Barbara Leonardi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-29
Page : 328
Category : Literary Criticism
ISBN 13 : 3319967703
Description :


This book explores the intersections of gender with class and race in the construction of national and imperial ideologies and their fluid transformation from the Romantic to the Victorian period and beyond, exposing how these cultural constructions are deeply entangled with the family metaphor. For example, by examining the re-signification of the “angel in the house” and the deviant woman in the context of unstable or contingent masculinities and across discourses of class and nation, the volume contributes to a more nuanced understanding of British cultural constructions in the long nineteenth century. The central idea is to unearth the historical roots of the family metaphor in the construction of national and imperial ideologies, and to uncover the interests served by its specific discursive formation. The book explores both male and female stereotypes, enabling a more perceptive comparison, enriched with a nuanced reflection on the construction and social function of class.


Author : Robert J. Bennett
Harry Smith
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-06-27
Page : 364
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1351662309
Description :


This landmark research volume provides the first detailed history of entrepreneurship in Britain from the nineteenth century to the present. Using a remarkable new database of more than nine million entrepreneurs, it gives new understanding to the development of Britain as the world’s ‘first industrial nation’. Based on the first long-term whole-population analysis of British small business, it uses novel methods to identify from the 10-yearly population census the two to four million people per year who operated businesses in the period 1851–1911. Using big data analytics, it reveals how British businesses evolved over time, supplementing the census-derived data on individuals with other sources on companies and business histories. By comparing to modern data, it reveals how the late-Victorian period was a ‘golden age’ for smaller and medium-sized business, driven by family firms, the accelerating participation of women and the increasing use of incorporation as significant vehicles for development. A unique resource and citation for future research on entrepreneurship, of crucial significance to economic development policies for small business around the world, and above all the key entry point for researchers to the database which is deposited at the UK Data Archive, this major publication will change our understanding of the scale and economic significance of small businesses in the nineteenth century.


Author : Béatrice Craig
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-09
Page : 303
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 1137574135
Description :


This volume explores the role of women in business in nineteenth-century Northern French textile centers. Lille and the surrounding towns were then dominated by big and small family businesses, and many were run by women. Those women did not withdraw into the parlour as the century progressed and the ‘separate ideology’ spread. Neither did they become mere figure heads - most were business persons in their own rights. Yet, they have left almost no traces in the collective memory, and historians assume they ceased to exist. This book therefore seeks to answer three interrelated questions: How common were those women, and what kind of business did they run? What factors facilitated or impeded their activities? And finally, why have they been forgotten, and why has their representations in regional and academic history been so at odd with reality? Indirectly, this study also sheds light on the process of industrialization in this region, and on industrialists’ strategies.


Author : Nancy Glazener
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2016
Page : 328
Category : American literature
ISBN 13 : 0199390134
Description :


Using the US as a case study, this study examines the public life of literature between the late 18th and the early 20th centuries, bringing together the development of literature's intellectual infrastructure, its operation in print culture, its changing status in higher education, and the surprisingly rich and interesting history of public literary culture.


Author : Robert Beachy
Béatrice Craig
Publisher : Berg Pub Limited
Release : 2006
Page : 244
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Looking at women, business and finance in the long nineteenth century, this book challenges our traditional understanding of 'separate spheres' - whereby men operated in the public world of work and women in the private realm of the domestic. Drawing on case studies throughout Europe, this book reveals that there was much greater diversity in women's economic experience across all social strata than has previously been understood.International contributors take a new look at women's roles in finance and investment, family-owned businesses, retailing, service activities, and the artisanal trades. They reveal that elite and middle-class women often manipulated financial resources in a highly sophisticated manner. Family-owned businesses and retail trade geared to women, such as grocery and fashion, also offered women opportunities. Throughout, the book considers the impact of industrialization on women's economic agency and examines women in the accommodation business in London, female entrepreneurs in Italy, prostitutes in Germany, family businesses in Sweden, women in publishing in Spain and much more.


Author : David I. Kertzer
Marzio Barbagli
Publisher : Yale University Press
Release : 2001-01-01
Page : 420
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 9780300090901
Description :


The penultimate volume in this series explores the effect that industrialisation, new technology, the growth of cities, and the revolutions in transport and in communication had on the family between 1789 and 1913.


Author : Ramo Palalić
Emil Knezović
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-01
Page : 182
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3030452530
Description :


This book explores the historical, current and future prospects of women’s entrepreneurial activities in the former Yugoslavia, a region that is currently in a process of transition from socialism to a free-market economy. Each chapter presents the past, present and future of female entrepreneurship for each individual country. Some of the questions that the book answers include: Have women been historically and culturally ignored, marginalized, or systematically forbidden to run their own businesses? What are the status quo and future prospects for this group? And, is the investment climate conducive to women-owned businesses? The book provides an extensive overview of female entrepreneurship, its promotion and development, the role of the state, and other key factors that shape the female entrepreneurship ecosystem. Readers will gain an overall perspective on the essential issues and challenges to women’s entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial initiatives and innovation, policy structures and institutional support to female entrepreneurship in the region.


Author : Alison Kay
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2012-08-21
Page : 202
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1135255024
Description :


The Foundations of Female Entrepreneurship explores the relationship between home, household headship and enterprise in Victorian London. It examines the notions of duty, honor and suitability in how women’s ventures are represented by themselves and others and engages in a comparison of the interpretation of historical female entrepreneurship by contemporaries and historians in the UK, Europe and America. It argues that just as women in business have often been hidden by men, they have often also been hidden by the ‘home’ and the conceptualization of separate spheres of public and private agency and of ‘the’ entrepreneur. Drawing on contextual evidence from 1747 to 1880, including fire insurance records, directories, trade cards, newspapers, memoirs, the census and extensive record linkage, this study concentrates on the early to mid-Victorian period when ideals about gender roles and appropriate work for women were vigorously debated. Alison Kay offers new insight into the motivations of the Victorian women who opted to pursue enterprises of their own. By engaging in empirical comparisons with men's business, it also reveals similarities and differences with the small to medium sized ventures of male business proprietors. The link between home and enterprise is then further excavated by detailed record linkage, revealing the households and domestic circumstances and responsibilities of female proprietors. Using both discourse and data to connect enterprise, proprietor and household, The Foundations of Female Entrepreneurship provides a multi-dimensional picture of the Victorian female proprietor and moves beyond the stereotypes. It argues that active business did not exclude women, although careful representation was vital and this has obscured the similarities of their businesses with those of many male business proprietors.


Author : Angela G. Ray
Paul Stob
Publisher : Penn State Press
Release : 2018-04-11
Page : 264
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 0271081937
Description :


Changes to the landscape of higher education in the United States over the past decades have urged scholars grappling with issues of privilege, inequality, and social immobility to think differently about how we learn and deliberate. Thinking Together is a multidisciplinary conversation about how people approached similar questions of learning and difference in the nineteenth century. In the open air, in homes, in public halls, and even in prisons, people pondered recurring issues: justice, equality, careers, entertainment, war and peace, life and death, heaven and hell, the role of education, and the nature of humanity itself. Paying special attention to the dynamics of race and gender in intellectual settings, the contributors to this volume consider how myriad groups and individuals—many of whom lived on the margins of society and had limited access to formal education—developed and deployed knowledge useful for public participation and public advocacy around these concerns. Essays examine examples such as the women and men who engaged lecture culture during the Civil War; Irish immigrants who gathered to assess their relationship to the politics and society of the New World; African American women and men who used music and theater to challenge the white gaze; and settler-colonists in Liberia who created forums for envisioning a new existence in Africa and their relationship to a U.S. homeland. Taken together, this interdisciplinary exploration shows how learning functioned not only as an instrument for public action but also as a way to forge meaningful ties with others and to affirm the value of an intellectual life. By highlighting people, places, and purposes that diversified public discourse, Thinking Together offers scholars across the humanities new insights and perspectives on how difference enhances the human project of thinking together.


Author : Carol Beardmore
Cara Dobbing
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-04-03
Page : 292
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 3030048551
Description :


This book explores the ways that families were formed and re-formed, and held together and fractured, in Britain from the sixteenth to twentieth century. The chapters build upon the argument, developed in the 1990s and 2000s, that the nuclear family form, the bedrock of understandings of the structure and function of family and kinship units, provides a wholly inadequate lens through which to view the British family. Instead the volume's contributors point to families and households with porous boundaries, an endless capacity to reconstitute themselves, and an essential fluidity to both the form of families, and the family and kinship relationships that stood in the background. This book offers a re-reading, and reconsideration of the existing pillars of family history in Britain. It examines areas such as: Scottish kinship patterns, work patterns of kin in Post Office families, stepfamily relations, the role of family in managing lunatic patients, and the fluidity associated with a range of professional families in the nineteenth century. Chapter 8 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com


Author : Thomas S. Wermuth
James M. Johnson
Publisher : SUNY Press
Release : 2009-09-25
Page : 260
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 9780615308296
Description :


Examines the many facets of the Hudson’s rich history, distinctive regional culture, and important contributions to the development of modern America. Since its inception in 1984, The Hudson River Valley Review has taken an eclectic and interdisciplinary approach to a region that has long been recognized for its role in American colonial history; its important contributions to American arts, letters, and architecture; its role in the economic development of the nation; and its significant and ongoing contributions to American culture and history. This collection of essays brings together eighteen of the best essays from the Review’s first twenty-five years of publication. From natives and newcomers to twentieth-century leaders, the authors of these essays examine the many facets of the Hudson’s rich history, distinctive regional culture, and important contributions to the development of modern America.