Homology Genes And Evolutionary Innovation Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Günter P. Wagner
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2018-07-10
Page : 496
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0691180679
Description :


A major synthesis of homology, written by a top researcher in the field Homology—a similar trait shared by different species and derived from common ancestry, such as a seal's fin and a bird’s wing—is one of the most fundamental yet challenging concepts in evolutionary biology. This groundbreaking book provides the first mechanistically based theory of what homology is and how it arises in evolution. Günter Wagner, one of the preeminent researchers in the field, argues that homology, or character identity, can be explained through the historical continuity of character identity networks—that is, the gene regulatory networks that enable differential gene expression. He shows how character identity is independent of the form and function of the character itself because the same network can activate different effector genes and thus control the development of different shapes, sizes, and qualities of the character. Demonstrating how this theoretical model can provide a foundation for understanding the evolutionary origin of novel characters, Wagner applies it to the origin and evolution of specific systems, such as cell types; skin, hair, and feathers; limbs and digits; and flowers. The first major synthesis of homology to be published in decades, Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation reveals how a mechanistically based theory can serve as a unifying concept for any branch of science concerned with the structure and development of organisms, and how it can help explain major transitions in evolution and broad patterns of biological diversity.


Author : Mary Jane West-Eberhard
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2003-03-13
Page : 916
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780198028567
Description :


The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.


Author : Samuel M. Scheiner
David P. Mindell
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2020-04-03
Page : 464
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 022667133X
Description :


Darwin’s nineteenth-century writings laid the foundations for modern studies of evolution, and theoretical developments in the mid-twentieth century fostered the Modern Synthesis. Since that time, a great deal of new biological knowledge has been generated, including details of the genetic code, lateral gene transfer, and developmental constraints. Our improved understanding of these and many other phenomena have been working their way into evolutionary theory, changing it and improving its correspondence with evolution in nature. And while the study of evolution is thriving both as a basic science to understand the world and in its applications in agriculture, medicine, and public health, the broad scope of evolution—operating across genes, whole organisms, clades, and ecosystems—presents a significant challenge for researchers seeking to integrate abundant new data and content into a general theory of evolution. This book gives us that framework and synthesis for the twenty-first century. The Theory of Evolution presents a series of chapters by experts seeking this integration by addressing the current state of affairs across numerous fields within evolutionary biology, ranging from biogeography to multilevel selection, speciation, and macroevolutionary theory. By presenting current syntheses of evolution’s theoretical foundations and their growth in light of new datasets and analyses, this collection will enhance future research and understanding.


Author : Andreas Wanninger
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-08-10
Page : 251
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 370911862X
Description :


This multi-author, six-volume work summarizes our current knowledge on the developmental biology of all major invertebrate animal phyla. The main aspects of cleavage, embryogenesis, organogenesis and gene expression are discussed in an evolutionary framework. Each chapter presents an in-depth yet concise overview of both classical and recent literature, supplemented by numerous color illustrations and micrographs of a given animal group. The largely taxon-based chapters are supplemented by essays on topical aspects relevant to modern-day EvoDevo research such as regeneration, embryos in the fossil record, homology in the age of genomics and the role of EvoDevo in the context of reconstructing evolutionary and phylogenetic scenarios. A list of open questions at the end of each chapter may serve as a source of inspiration for the next generation of EvoDevo scientists. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates is a must-have for any scientist, teacher or student interested in developmental and evolutionary biology as well as in general invertebrate zoology. This volume starts off with three chapters that set the stage for the entire work by covering general aspects of EvoDevo research, including its relevance for animal phylogeny, homology issues in the age of developmental genomics, and embryological data in the fossil record. These are followed by taxon-based chapters on the animals that are commonly considered to have branched off the Animal Tree of Life before the evolution of the Bilateria: the Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria (with the Myxozoa being treated separately) and Ctenophora. In addition, the Acoelomorpha, Xenoturbellida and Chaetognatha are examined, including their currently hotly debated phylogenetic affinities.


Author : José M. Martín-Durán
Bruno C. Vellutini
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-22
Page : 284
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3030182029
Description :


Animal evolution has always been at the core of Biology, but even today many fundamental questions remain open. The field of animal ‘evo-devo’ is leveraging recent technical and conceptual advances in development, paleontology, genomics and transcriptomics to propose radically different answers to traditional evolutionary controversies. This book is divided into four parts, each of which approaches animal evolution from a different perspective. The first part (chapters 2 and 3) investigates how new sources of evidence have changed conventional views of animal origins, while the second (chapters 4–8) addresses the connection between embryogenesis and evolution, and the genesis of cellular, tissue and morphological diversity. The third part (chapters 9 and 10) investigates how big data in molecular biology is transforming our understanding of the mechanisms governing morphological change in animals. In closing, the fourth part (chapters 11–13) explores new theoretical and conceptual approaches to animal evolution. ‘Old questions and young approaches to animal evolution’ offers a comprehensive and updated view of animal evolutionary biology that will serve both as a first step into this fascinating field for students and university educators, and as a review of complementary approaches for researchers.


Author : Donald R. Prothero
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2020-12-22
Page : 360
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0231548850
Description :


The theory of evolution unites the past, present, and future of living things. It puts humanity’s place in the universe into necessary perspective. Despite a history of controversy, the evidence for evolution continues to accumulate as a result of many separate strands of amazing scientific sleuthing. In The Story of Evolution in 25 Discoveries, Donald R. Prothero explores the most fascinating breakthroughs in piecing together the evidence for evolution. In twenty-five vignettes, he recounts the dramatic stories of the people who made crucial discoveries, placing each moment in the context of what it represented for the progress of science. He tackles topics like what it means to see evolution in action and what the many transitional fossils show us about evolution, following figures from Darwin to lesser-known researchers as they unlock the mysteries of the fossil record, the earth, and the universe. The book also features the stories of animal species strange and familiar, including humans—and our ties to some of our closest relatives and more distant cousins. Prothero’s wide-ranging tales showcase awe-inspiring and bizarre aspects of nature and the powerful insights they give us into the way that life works. Brisk and entertaining while firmly grounded in fundamental science, The Story of Evolution in 25 Discoveries is a captivating read for anyone curious about the evidence for evolution and what it means for humanity.


Author : Niles Eldredge
Telmo Pievani
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2016-09-23
Page : 385
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 022642622X
Description :


The natural world is infinitely complex and hierarchically structured, with smaller units forming the components of larger systems: genes are components genomes, cells are building blocks of tissues and organs, individuals are members of populations, which, in turn, are parts of species. In the face of such awe inspiring complexity, scientists need tools like the hierarchy theory of evolution, which provides a theoretical framework and an interdisciplinary research program that aims to understand the way complex biological systems work and evolve. The multidisciplinary approach looks at the structure of the myriad intricate interactions across levels of organization that range from molecules to the biosphere. Evolutionary Theory: A Hierarchical Perspective provides an introduction to the theory, which is currently driving a great deal of research in bioinformatics and evolutionary theory. Written by a diverse and renowned group of contributors, and edited by the founder of Hierachy Theory Niles Eldredge, this work will help make transparent the fundamental patterns driving living sytems.


Author : Tobias Uller
Kevin N. Laland
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2019-09-03
Page : 360
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0262039923
Description :


A comprehensive treatment of the concept of causation in evolutionary biology that makes clear its central role in both historical and contemporary debates. Most scientific explanations are causal. This is certainly the case in evolutionary biology, which seeks to explain the diversity of life and the adaptive fit between organisms and their surroundings. The nature of causation in evolutionary biology, however, is contentious. How causation is understood shapes the structure of evolutionary theory, and historical and contemporary debates in evolutionary biology have revolved around the nature of causation. Despite its centrality, and differing views on the subject, the major conceptual issues regarding the nature of causation in evolutionary biology are rarely addressed. This volume fills the gap, bringing together biologists and philosophers to offer a comprehensive, interdisciplinary treatment of evolutionary causation. Contributors first address biological motivations for rethinking evolutionary causation, considering the ways in which development, extra-genetic inheritance, and niche construction challenge notions of cause and process in evolution, and describing how alternative representations of evolutionary causation can shed light on a range of evolutionary problems. Contributors then analyze evolutionary causation from a philosophical perspective, considering such topics as causal entanglement, the commingling of organism and environment, and the relationship between causation and information. Contributors John A. Baker, Lynn Chiu, David I. Dayan, Renée A. Duckworth, Marcus W Feldman, Susan A. Foster, Melissa A. Graham, Heikki Helanterä, Kevin N. Laland, Armin P. Moczek, John Odling-Smee, Jun Otsuka, Massimo Pigliucci, Arnaud Pocheville, Arlin Stoltzfus, Karola Stotz, Sonia E. Sultan, Christoph Thies, Tobias Uller, Denis M. Walsh, Richard A. Watson


Author : Pierre Pontarotti
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-07-10
Page : 409
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3319199323
Description :


This book presents 20 selected contributions to the 18th Evolutionary Biology Meeting, which took place in September 2014 in Marseille. They are grouped under the following major themes: · Genotype to Phenotype · Genetic Mechanisms of Diversification · Evolutionary Mechanisms · Speciation and Biodiversity The aims of these annual meetings in Marseille are to bring together leading evolutionary biologists and other scientists who employ evolutionary biology concepts, e.g. for medical research, and to promote the exchange of ideas and encourage interdisciplinary collaborations. Offering an up-to-date overview of recent advances in the field of evolutionary biology, this book represents an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and advanced students.


Author : David Haig
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2020-03-31
Page : 512
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0262358034
Description :


How the meaningless process of natural selection produces purposeful beings who find meaning in the world. In From Darwin to Derrida, evolutionary biologist David Haig explains how a physical world of matter in motion gave rise to a living world of purpose and meaning. Natural selection, a process without purpose, gives rise to purposeful beings who find meaning in the world. The key to this, Haig proposes, is the origin of mutable “texts”—genes—that preserve a record of what has worked in the world. These texts become the specifications for the intricate mechanisms of living beings. Haig draws on a wide range of sources—from Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy to Immanuel Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment to the work of Jacques Derrida to the latest findings on gene transmission, duplication, and expression—to make his argument. Genes and their effects, he explains, are like eggs and chickens. Eggs exist for the sake of becoming chickens and chickens for the sake of laying eggs. A gene's effects have a causal role in determining which genes are copied. A gene (considered as a lineage of material copies) persists if its lineage has been consistently associated with survival and reproduction. Organisms can be understood as interpreters that link information from the environment to meaningful action in the environment. Meaning, Haig argues, is the output of a process of interpretation; there is a continuum from the very simplest forms of interpretation, instantiated in single RNA molecules near the origins of life, to the most sophisticated. Life is interpretation—the use of information in choice.


Author : Kinya G. Ota
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-05-20
Page : 286
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9811608504
Description :


This book explains how the beautiful goldfish body develops from a single fertilized egg and how this developmental process was changed during the process of domestication. The contents can be categorized as follows: i) numerous high-quality live photo images of embryonic and larval stage goldfish, ii) detailed descriptions of skeletogenesis with fluorescent microscopic and histological images, iii) the most advanced interpretation of the relationship between artificial selection and developmental processes, iv) future perspectives of the application of the genome editing techniques for the ornamental goldfish breeding, and v) methodological descriptions for goldfish developmental biology. Goldfish is a popular ornamental domesticated fish species, and its highly diverged morphological features and color variations attract fanciers. The goldfish has been spread all over the world by breeders, and this fish has also been employed as an experimental organism by researchers in the field of life science. However, so far, no available scientific books provide a detailed description of the embryogenesis and morphogenesis of this animal. Compared with the number of published fancier books, the number of books on goldfish biology is very few. This publication will be useful not only for the research community particularly in the fields of developmental biology, evolutionary biology, zoology, aquaculture, fishery science, and related areas but also for enthusiastic goldfish fanciers and breeders.


Author : Christopher J. Austin
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-10-04
Page : 144
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1351240838
Description :


This book offers a novel defence of a highly contested philosophical position: biological natural kind essentialism. This theory is routinely and explicitly rejected for its purported inability to be explicated in the context of contemporary biological science, and its supposed incompatibility with the process and progress of evolution by natural selection. Christopher J. Austin challenges these objections, and in conjunction with contemporary scientific advancements within the field of evolutionary-developmental biology, the book utilises a contemporary neo-Aristotelian metaphysics of "dispositional properties", or causal powers, to provide a theory of essentialism centred on the developmental architecture of organisms and its role in the evolutionary process. By defending a novel theory of Aristotelian biological natural kind essentialism, Essence in the Age of Evolution represents the fresh and exciting union of cutting-edge philosophical insight and scientific knowledge.


Author :
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-10-29
Page : 538
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 0128007133
Description :


Animal Creativity and Innovation explores theories and research on animal innovation and creativity, comparing and contrasting it with theory and research on human creativity and innovation. In doing so, it encompasses findings from psychology, biology, neuroscience, engineering, business, ecology, and education. The book includes examples of animal innovation in parrots, dogs, marine mammals, insects, and primates, exploring parallels from creative play in children. The book defines creativity, differentiating it from play, and looks at evolutionary models and neurological constructs. The book further explores applied aspects of animal innovation and creativity including tool use and group dynamics, as well as barriers to creativity. The final chapters look into how creative behavior may be taught or trained. Each chapter is followed by a commentary for integration of thoughts and ideas between animal and human research, behavioral and cognitive research, and theory and observation in real life. Compares theory and research on animal and human creativity Defines and differentiates creativity from play Reviews applied creativity in tool use and social dynamics Includes examples of animal creativity in multiple species


Author : Günter P. Wagner
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2000-10-31
Page : 622
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0080528902
Description :


Almost all evolutionary biologists, indeed all biologists, use particular features to study life. These characteristics or features used by evolutionary biologists are used in a particular way to unravel a tangled evolutionary history, document the rate of evolutionary change, or as evidence of biodiversity. "Characters" are the "data" of evolutionary biology and they can be employed differently in research providing both opportunities and limitations. The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology is about characters, their use, how different sorts of characters are limited, and what are appropriate methods for character analysis. Leading evolutionary biologists from around the world are contributors to this authoritative review of the "character concept." Because characters and the conception of characters are central to all studies of evolution, and because evolution is the central organizing principle of biology, this book will appeal to a wide cross-section of biologists. Focuses upon "characters" -- fundamental data for evolutionary biology Covers the myriad ways in which characters are defined, described, and distinguished Includes historical, morphological, molecular, behavioral, and philosophical perspectives


Author : Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2009-03-26
Page : 218
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 0191609552
Description :


In 1859 Darwin described a deceptively simple mechanism that he called "natural selection," a combination of variation, inheritance, and reproductive success. He argued that this mechanism was the key to explaining the most puzzling features of the natural world, and science and philosophy were changed forever as a result. The exact nature of the Darwinian process has been controversial ever since, however. Godfrey-Smith draws on new developments in biology, philosophy of science, and other fields to give a new analysis and extension of Darwin's idea. The central concept used is that of a "Darwinian population," a collection of things with the capacity to undergo change by natural selection. From this starting point, new analyses of the role of genes in evolution, the application of Darwinian ideas to cultural change, and "evolutionary transitions" that produce complex organisms and societies are developed. Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection will be essential reading for anyone interested in evolutionary theory


Author : Lynn B. Martin
Cameron K. Ghalambor
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-11-24
Page : 368
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1118398785
Description :


Integrative Organismal Biology synthesizes current understanding of the causes and consequences of individual variation at the physiological, behavioral and organismal levels. Emphasizing key topics such as phenotypic plasticity and flexibility, and summarizing emerging areas such as ecological immunology, oxidative stress biology and others, Integrative Organismal Biology pulls together information across a multitude of disciplines to provide a synthetic understanding of the role of the individual in evolution. Beginning with grounding theory highlighting the role of the individual in evolutionary and ecological processes, the book covers theory and mechanism from both classic and modern perspectives. Chapters explore concepts such as how genetic and epigenetic variation becomes physiological and phenotypic variation, homeostasis, gene regulatory networks, physiological regulatory networks, and integrators. A concluding section illustrates these concepts through a series of case studies of life processes such as aging, reproduction, and immune defense. Written and edited by leaders in the field who are actively engaged in teaching and research, Integrative Organismal Biology will be an important advanced textbook for students and researchers across the numerous subdisciplines of integrative biology.


Author : Egbert Giles Leigh
Christian Ziegler
Publisher : Yale University Press
Release : 2019-08-20
Page : 256
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0300249160
Description :


A beautifully written exploration of how cooperation shaped life on earth, from its single-celled beginnings to complex human societies In this rich, wide-ranging, beautifully illustrated volume, Egbert Leigh explores the results of billions of years of evolution at work. Leigh, who has spent five decades on Panama’s Barro Colorado Island reflecting on the organization of various amazingly diverse tropical ecosystems, now shows how selection on “selfish genes” gives rise to complex modes of cooperation and interdependence. With the help of such artists as the celebrated nature photographer Christian Ziegler, natural history illustrator Deborah Miriam Kaspari, and Damond Kyllo, Leigh explains basic concepts of evolutionary biology, ranging from life’s single-celled beginnings to the complex societies humans have formed today. The book covers a range of topics, focusing on adaptation, competition, mutualism, heredity, natural selection, sexual selection, genetics, and language. Leigh’s reflections on evolution, competition, and cooperation show how the natural world becomes even more beautiful when viewed in the light of evolution.


Author : Scott Lidgard
Lynn K. Nyhart
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2017-05-24
Page : 367
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 022644645X
Description :


Introduction: working together on individuality / Lynn K. Nyhart and Scott Lidgard -- The work of biological individuality: concepts and contexts / Scott Lidgard and Lynn K. Nyhart -- Cells, colonies, and clones: individuality in the volvocine algae / Matthew D. Herron -- Individuality and the control of life cycles / Beckett Sterner -- Discovering the ties that bind: cell-cell communication and the development of cell sociology / Andrew S. Reynolds -- Alternation of generations and individuality, 1851 / Lynn K. Nyhart and Scott Lidgard -- Spencer's evolutionary entanglement: from liminal individuals to implicit collectivities / Snait Gissis -- Biological individuality and enkapsis: from Martin Heidenhain's synthesiology to the völkisch national community / Olivier Rieppel -- Parasitology, zoology, and society in France, ca. 1880-1920 / Michael A. Osborne -- Metabolism, autonomy, and individuality / Hannah Landecker -- Bodily parts in the structure-function dialectic / Ingo Brigandt -- Commentaries: historical, biological, and philosophical perspectives -- Distrust that particular intuition: resilient essentialisms and empirical challenges in the history of biological individuality / James Elwick -- Biological individuality: a relational reading / Scott F. Gilbert -- Philosophical dimensions of individuality / Alan C. Love and Ingo Brigandt


Author : Kenneth F. Schaffner
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-04-01
Page :
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 0199721505
Description :


Behaving presents an overview of the recent history and methodology of behavioral genetics and psychiatric genetics, informed by a philosophical perspective. Kenneth F. Schaffner addresses a wide range of issues, including genetic reductionism and determinism, "free will," and quantitative and molecular genetics. The latter covers newer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have produced a paradigm shift in the subject, and generated the problem of "missing heritability." Schaffner also presents cases involving pro and con arguments for genetic testing for IQ and for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Schaffner examines the nature-nurture controversy and Developmental Systems Theory using C. elegans or "worm" studies as a test case, concluding that genes are special and provide powerful tools, including "deep homology," for investigating behavior. He offers a novel account of biological knowledge emphasizing the importance of models, mechanisms, pathways, and networks, which clarifies how partial reductions provide explanations of traits and disorders. The book also includes examinations of personality genetics and of schizophrenia and its etiology, alongside interviews with prominent researchers in the area, and discusses debates about psychosis that led to changes in the DSM-5 in 2013. Schaffner concludes by discussing additional philosophical implications of the genetic analyses in the book, some major worries about "free will," and arguments pro and con about why genes and DNA are so special. Though genes are special, newer perspectives presented in this book will be needed for progress in behavioral genetics- perspectives that situate genes in complex multilevel prototypic pathways and networks. With a mix of optimism and pessimism about the state of the field and the subject, Schaffner's book will be of interest to scholars in the history and philosophy of science, medicine, and psychiatry.


Author : Neil Shubin
Publisher : Pantheon
Release : 2020
Page : 288
Category : SCIENCE
ISBN 13 : 1101871334
Description :


"The author of the best-selling Your Inner Fish, now gives us a lively and accessible account of the great transformations in the history of life, that enable us to further understand whether our presence on this planet is an accident or inevitable. The great transformations in the history of life brought about whole scale shifts in how animals live and how their bodies are organized: the evolution of fish to land-living creature, the origin of birds, the beginnings of bodies in single-celled creatures. Shubin describes how over the last half-century, scientists have been able to explore how genetic recipes build bodies during embryological development--how these inventions and adaptations occur in a nonprogressive manner in different contexts, at different speeds. Paleontology has been transformed over the last 50 years by tools and techniques of molecular biology--and it is that revolution in our understanding of the evolution of life that Shubin traces here. Each of us is a mosaic of precursors that came about at different times and places, with deep rooted connections across species that Darwin, for all he understood, could never even have imagined"--