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Author : Tessa Huff
Publisher : Abrams
Release : 2016-04-19
Page : 288
Category : Cooking
ISBN 13 : 1613129432
Description :


It’s time to venture beyond vanilla and chocolate and take your baking skills up a notch. We’re talking layers—two, three, four, or more! Create sky-high, bakery-quality treats at home with Tessa Huff’s 150 innovative recipes, which combine new and exciting flavors of cake, fillings, and frostings—everything from pink peppercorn cherry to bourbon butterscotch, and pumpkin vanilla chai to riesling rhubarb and raspberry chocolate stout. Including contemporary baking methods and industry tips and tricks, Layered covers every decorating technique you’ll ever need with simple instructions and gorgeous step-by-step photos that speak to bakers of every skill level—and to anyone who wants to transform dessert into layer upon layer of edible art.


Author : R.M.A. Lieth
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
Page : 280
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9401727503
Description :


The goal of the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures is to give a critical survey of our present knowledge on a large family of materials which can be described as solids containing molecules which in two dimensions extend to infinity and which are loosely stacked on top of each other to form three dimensional crystals. Of course, the physics and chemistry of these crystals are specific chapters in ordinary solid state science, and many a scientist hunting for new phenomena has in the past been disappointed to find that materials with layered structures are not entirely exotic. Their electron and phonon states are not two dimensional, and the high hopes held by some for spectacular dimensionality effects in superconductivity were shattered. Nevertheless, the structural features and their physical and chemical consequences singularize layered structures sufficiently to make them a fascinating subject of research. This is all the more true since they are met in insulators and semiconductors as well as in normal and superconducting metals. Although for the time being the series is intentionally limited to cover inorganic materials only, the many known organic layered structures may well be the subject of future volumes. Among the noteworthy peculiarities of layered structures, we mention specific growth mechanisms and crystal habits. Polytypism is very common and it is fasci nating indeed to find up to 240 different polytypes in the same chemical substance.


Author : V. Grasso
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1986-06-30
Page : 517
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9789027721020
Description :


This new volume in the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures satisfies the need for a comprehensive review of the progress made in the decade 1972-1982 in the field of the electronic properties of layer compounds. Some recent theoretical and experimental developments are highlighted by authori tative physicists active in current research. The previous books of this series covering similar topics are volumes 3 and 4. The present review is mainly intended to fulfill the gap up to 1982 and part of 1983. I am indebted to all the authors for their friendly co-operation and continuous effort in preparing the contributions in their own fields of competence. I am sure that both the expertise scientists and the beginners in the field of the electronic properties of layered materials will find this book a valuable tool for their research work. Warm thanks are due to Prof. E. Mooser, General Editor of the series, for his constant and authoritative advice. * * * This book has been conceived as a tribute to Prof. Franco Bassani to whom the Italian tradition in the field of layer compounds, as well as in other fields of solid state physics, owes much. The authors of this review have all benefited at some time of their professional life from close cooperation with him. Istituto di Struttura della Materia, VINCENZO GRASSO Universitd di Messina IX V Grasso (ed.). Electronic Structure and Electronic Transitions in Layered Materials. ix.


Author : Masami Okamoto
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release : 2003
Page : 166
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9781859573914
Description :


The review sets out to highlight the major developments in this field over the last decade. The different techniques used to prepare PLS nanocomposites are covered. The physicochemical characterisation of PLS nanocomposites and the improved materials properties that those materials can display are discussed. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.


Author : Leonid M. Brekhovskikh
Oleg Godin
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1998-07-20
Page : 240
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3540647244
Description :


This monograph is devoted to the systematic presentation of the theory of sound wave propagation in layered structures. These structures can be man-made, such as ultrasonic filters, lenses, surface-wave delay lines, or natural media, such as the ocean and the atmosphere, with their marked horizontal stratification. A related problem is the propagation of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth's crust These topics have been treated rather completely in the book by L. M. Brek hovskikh, Waves in Layered Media, the English version of the second edition of which was published by Academic Press in 1980. Due to progress in experimental and computer technology it has become possible to analyze the influence of factors such as medium motion and density stratification upon the propagation of sound waves. Much attention has been paid to propagation theory in near-stratified media, Le. , media with small deviations from strict stratification. Interesting results have also been obtained in the fields of acoustics which had been previously considered to be "completely" developed. For these reasons, and also because of the inflow of researchers from the related fields of physics and mathematics, the circle of persons and research groups engaged in the study of sound propagation has rather expanded. Therefore, the appearance of a new summary review of the field of acoustics of layered media has become highly desirable. Since Waves in Layered Media became quite popular, we have tried to retain its positive features and general structure.


Author : Vicente Rives
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release : 2001
Page : 439
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9781590330609
Description :


Layered double hydroxides are one of the variety of names given to a family of layered materials first discovered in Sweden in 1842. These materials are interesting because their layer cations can be changed among a wide selection, and the interlayer anion can also be (nearly) freely chosen. Like cationic clays, they can be pillared and can exchange interlayer species -- thus increasing applications and making new routes to derivatives. The principle areas of application include catalyst support, anion scavengers, polymer stabilisers, and antacids. In the last several years, reviews and studies of LDHs have dealt with these uses. This book aims to update the current body of LDH knowledge from a wide array of views. The first section addresses the synthesis and physiochemical characterisation of these materials, and section two focuses on the applications of LDHs.


Author : Francis Lévy
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1979-11-30
Page : 578
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9789027709677
Description :


Materials with layered structures remain an extensively investigated subject in current physics and chemistry. Most of the promising technological applications however deal with intercalation compounds of layered materials. Graphite intercalation compounds have now been known for a long time. Intercalation in transition metal dichalcogenides, on the other hand, has been investigated only recently. The amount of information on intercalated layered materials has increased far beyond the original concept for this volume in the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures. The large size of this volume also indicates how important this field of research will be, not only in basic science, but also in industrial and energy applications. In this volume, two classes of materials are included, generally investigated by different scientists. Graphite intercalates and intercalates of other inorganic com pounds actually constitute separate classes of materials. However, the similarity between the intercalation techniques and some intercalation processes does not justify this separation, and accounts for the inclusion of both classes in this volume. The first part of the volume deals with intercalation processes and intercalates of transition metal dichalcogenides. Several chapters include connected topics necessary to give a good introduction or comprehensive review of these types of materials. Organic as well as inorganic intercalation compounds are treated. The second part includes contributions concerning graphite intercalates. It should be noted that graphite intercalation compounds have already been mentioned in Volumes I and V.


Author : R.M.A. Lieth
Ronald M. Lieth
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1977-07-31
Page : 280
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9789027706386
Description :


The goal of the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures is to give a critical survey of our present knowledge on a large family of materials which can be described as solids containing molecules which in two dimensions extend to infinity and which are loosely stacked on top of each other to form three dimensional crystals. Of course, the physics and chemistry of these crystals are specific chapters in ordinary solid state science, and many a scientist hunting for new phenomena has in the past been disappointed to find that materials with layered structures are not entirely exotic. Their electron and phonon states are not two dimensional, and the high hopes held by some for spectacular dimensionality effects in superconductivity were shattered. Nevertheless, the structural features and their physical and chemical consequences singularize layered structures sufficiently to make them a fascinating subject of research. This is all the more true since they are met in insulators and semiconductors as well as in normal and superconducting metals. Although for the time being the series is intentionally limited to cover inorganic materials only, the many known organic layered structures may well be the subject of future volumes. Among the noteworthy peculiarities of layered structures, we mention specific growth mechanisms and crystal habits. Polytypism is very common and it is fasci nating indeed to find up to 240 different polytypes in the same chemical substance.


Author : K. Motizuki
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 300
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9400945760
Description :


The structural phase transition is one of the most fundamental problems in solid state physics. Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides provide us with a most exciting area for the study of structural phase transitions that are associated with the charge density wave (CDW). A large variety of structural phase transitions, such as commensurate and incommensurate transitions, and the physical proper ties related to the formation of a CDW, have been an object of intense study made for many years by methods employing modem microscopic techniques. Rather recently, efforts have been devoted to the theoretical understanding of these experimental results. Thus, McMillan, for example, has developed an elegant phenomenological theory on the basis of the Landau free energy expansion. An extension of McMillan's theory has provided a successful understanding of the successive phase transitions observed in the IT- and 2H-compounds. In addition, a microscopic theory of lattice instability, lattice dynamics, and lattice distortion in the CDW state of the transition-metal dichalcogenides has been developed based on their electronic structures. As a result, the driving force of the CDW formation in the IT- and 2H-compounds has become clear. Furthermore, the effect of lattice fluctuations on the CDW transition and on the anomalous behavior of various physical properties has been made clear microscopically.


Author : Albert Furrer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1998-09-30
Page : 406
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780792352266
Description :


The phenomenon of superconductivity - after its discovery in metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, etc. by Kamerlingh-Onnes in 19]] - has attracted many scientists. Superconductivity was described in a very satisfactory manner by the model proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer, and by the extensions proposed by Abrikosov, Gorkov and Eliashberg. Relations were established between superconductivity and the fundamental properties of solids, resulting in a possible upper limit of the critical temperature at about 23 K. The breakthrough that revolutionized the field was made in 1986 by Bednorz and Muller with the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in layered copper-oxide perovskites. Today the record in transition temperature is 133 K for a Hg based cuprate system. The last decade has not only seen a revolution in the size of the critical temperature, but also in the myriads of research groups that entered the field. In addition, high-temperature superconductivity became a real interdisciplinary topic and brought together physicists, chemists and materials scientists who started to investigate the new compounds with almost all the available experimental techniques and theoretical methods. As a consequence we have witnessed an avalanche of publications which has never occurred in any field of science so far and which makes it difficult for the individual to be thoroughly informed about the relevant results and trends. Neutron scattering has outstanding properties in the elucidation of the basic properties of high-temperature superconductors.


Author : Roberto Pizzoferrato
Maria Richetta
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2021-04-01
Page : 186
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3036504761
Description :


Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) certainly do not represent a newcomer to the scientific community, yet they continue to attract a strong and general interest among a vast and multifaceted range of researchers. This persistent modernity is definitely due to some peculiar characteristics of these materials, which allow researchers and engineers to play with different aspects of two worlds: organic and inorganic, crystalline and molecular, solid and liquid, cationic and anionic. A virtually infinite number of possible chemical combinations takes advantage of their layered structure to express an unrivaled collection of remarkable properties. The capture and/or release of organic and inorganic species, versatile low-cost catalytic activity, and blending with other compounds to build up a variety of hybrid composites, are just some of the many effects investigated to date. As a result, the applications encompass almost all aspects of our life, ranging from renewable energy production to water purification, including biomedical applications, gas sensing, drug delivery, and food packaging and safety. This Special Issue highlights some of the recent research lines, and shows that remarkable progress has been and is still being made in all these aspects, to allow the consideration of LDHs as one of the most interesting and versatile inorganic materials.


Author : Bernard Charlier
Olivier Namur
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-05-18
Page : 748
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9401796521
Description :


This edited work contains the most recent advances related to the study of layered intrusions and cumulate rocks formation. The first part of this book presents reviews and new views of processes producing the textural, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of layered igneous rocks. The second part summarizes progress in the study of selected layered intrusions and their ore deposits from different parts of the world including Canada, Southwest China, Greenland and South Africa. Thirty experts have contributed to this update on recent research on Layered Intrusions. This highly informative book will provide insight for researchers with an interest in geology, igneous petrology, geochemistry and mineral resources.


Author : A. Aruchamy
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-13
Page : 360
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9401513015
Description :


This volume aims at bringing together the results of extensive research done during the last fifteen years on the interfacial photoelectronic properties of the inorganic layered semiconducting materials, mainly in relation to solar energy conversion. Significant contributions have been made both on the fundamental aspects of interface characteristics and on the suitability of the layered materials in photoelectrochemical (semiconductor/electrolyte junctions) and in solid state photovoltaic(Schottky and p-n junctions) cells. New insights into the physical and chemical characteristics of the contact surfaces have been gained and many new applications of these materials have been revealed. In particular, the basal plane surface of the layered materials shows low chemical reactivity and specific electronic behaviour with respect to isotropic solids. In electrochemical systems, the inert nature of these surfaces characterized by saturated chemical bonds has been recognized from studies on charge transfer reactions and catalysis. In addition, studies on the role of the d-band electronic transitions and the dynamics of the photogene rated charge carriers in the relative stability of the photoelectrodes of the transition metal dichalcogenides have deepened the understanding of the interfacial photoreactions. Transition metal layered compounds are also recognized as ideal model compounds for the studies Involving surfaces: photoreactions, adsorption phenomena and catalysis, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and epitaxial growth of thin films. Recently, quantum size effects have been investigated in layered semiconductor colloids.


Author : Giorgio Benedek
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 332
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9401126844
Description :


Layered crystals, characterized by a quasi-two-dimensional character of certain physical properties, play an interesting role in surface science. First of all they provide excellent inert substrates for epitaxial deposition and physisorption studies. The surfaces of layered crystals, however, are interesting in their own right because they make a relevant class of low-dimensional phenomena accessible to surface probes. Change density waves, incommensurate structures, phonon anomalies and high Tc superconductivity are well known examples. This book collects a series of review articles written by outstanding specialists on the structural assessment and spectroscopy of layered structures with surface-sensitive probes such as scanning microscopy and helium atom scattering, the theoretical analysis of their electronic and vibrational surface states, and the investigation of physisorbed overlayers.


Author : Inamuddin
Rajender Boddula
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-04-27
Page : 400
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 111965520X
Description :


Ever since the discovery of graphene, two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have been the central tool of the materials research community. The reason behind their importance is their superlative and unique electronic, optical, physical, chemical and mechanical properties in layered form rather than in bulk form. The 2DLMs have been applied to electronics, catalysis, energy, environment, and biomedical applications. The following topics are discussed in the book’s fifteen chapters: • The research status of the 2D metal-organic frameworks and the different techniques used to synthesize them. • 2D black phosphorus (BP) and its practical application in various fields. • Reviews the synthesis methods of MXenes and provides a detailed discussion of their structural characterization and physical, electrochemical and optical properties, as well as applications in catalysis, energy storage, environmental management, biomedicine, and gas sensing. • The carbon-based materials and their potential applications via the photocatalytic process using visible light irradiation. • 2D materials like graphene, TMDCs, few-layer phosphorene, MXene in layered form and their heterostructures. • The structure and applications of 2D perovskites. • The physical parameters of pristine layered materials, ZnO, transition metal dichalcogenides, and heterostructures of layered materials are discussed. • The coupling of graphitic carbon nitride with various metal sulfides and oxides to form efficient heterojunction for water purification. • The structural features, synthetic methods, properties, and different applications and properties of 2D zeolites. • The methods for synthesizing 2D hollow nanostructures are featured and their structural aspects and potential in medical and non-medical applications. • The characteristics and structural aspects of 2D layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and the various synthesis methods and role of LDH in non-medical applications as adsorbent, sensor, catalyst, etc. • The synthesis of graphene-based 2D layered materials synthesized by using top-down and bottom-up approaches where the main emphasis is on the hot-filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (HFTCVD) method. • The different properties of 2D h-BN and borophene and the various methods being used for the synthesis of 2D h-BN, along with their growth mechanism and transfer techniques. • The physical properties and current progress of various transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) based on photoactive materials for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution reaction. • The state-of-the-art of 2D layered materials and associated devices, such as electronic, biosensing, optoelectronic, and energy storage applications.


Author : Łukasz Sadowski
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-12
Page : 163
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 3030037835
Description :


This book discusses how to identify the level of adhesion in layered systems made of cement composites using a multi-scale approach based on experimental and numerical analyses. In particular, it explains 1. The suitability of previously used artificial intelligence tools and learning algorithms for reliable assessment of the level of adhesion of layered systems made of cement composites based on non-destructive tests 2. The development of the methodology for a reliable non-destructive evaluation of the level of adhesion in newly constructed layered systems of any overlay thickness and in existing layered systems made of cement composites 3. How to determine whether to assess the level of adhesion of the layered systems, and discusses the amplitude parameters, spatial, hybrid and volume parameters describing the morphology of the concrete substrate surface in the mesoscale 4. How to ascertain whether the effective surface area of the existing concrete substrate and the contribution of the exposed aggregate on this substrate, determined in mesoscale, have an impact on the level of adhesion of layered systems made of cement composites 5. The assessment of the structure of air pores in the microscale and the chemical composition of the cement composite on the nanoscale in the interphase zone together with the determination of their impact on the level of adhesion of layered systems made of cement composites 6. The development of an effective methodology for testing the level of adhesion of layered systems made of cement composites in a multi-scale approach, including the research methods and descriptors used.


Author : Yuan Cheng
Dongsheng Geng
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2019-01-22
Page : 316
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 1788017382
Description :


The considerable interest in graphene and 2D materials is sparking intense research on layered materials due to their unexpected physical, electronic, chemical, and optical properties. This book will provide a comprehensive overview of the recent and state-of-the-art research progress on layered materials for energy storage and other applications. With a brief introduction to layered materials, the chapters of this book gather various fascinating topics such as electrocatalysis for fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, photovoltaic devices, thermoelectric devices, supercapacitors and water splitting. Unique aspects of layered materials in these fields, including novel synthesis and functionalization methods, particular physicochemical properties and consequently enhanced performance are addressed. Challenges and perspectives for layered materials in these fields will also be presented. With contributions from key researchers, Layered Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion will be of interest to students, researchers and engineers worldwide who want a basic overview of the latest progress and future directions.


Author : Giuseppe Prestopino
Giuseppe Arrabito
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2021-04-14
Page : 186
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3036503064
Description :


Very few materials have attracted so much attention in recent years, both from researchers and industry, as layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have. LDHs, which are also referred to as anionic clays or hydrotalcites, are a wide class of inorganic ionic lamellar clay materials consisting of alternately stacked positively charged metal hydroxide layers with intercalated charge-balancing anions in hydrated interlayer regions. Their unique properties, such as their extremely high versatility in chemical composition and intercalation ability, extraordinary tuneability in composition as well as morphology, good biocompatibility and high anion exchangeability, have triggered immense interdisciplinary interest for their use in many different fields of chemistry, biology, medicine, and physics. Indeed, the applications of LDHs are constantly growing: LDHs, in the form of aggregated lamellar clusters, exfoliated single-layer nanosheets, or hierarchical films of interconnected nanoplatelets, can be effectively used as nanoscale vehicles in drug delivery, heterogeneous catalysts and supports for molecular catalysts, ion exchangers and adsorbents, solid electrolytes or fillers in electrochemistry, for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, water treatment and purification, and the synthesis of functional thin films. This book gathers the contributions to the Special Issue “Layered Double Hydroxides” of Crystals, which includes two review articles and seven research papers.


Author : Gabriele Puppis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-02-18
Page : 206
Category : Computers
ISBN 13 : 3642118801
Description :


Since 2002, FoLLI awards an annual prize for an outstanding dissertation in the fields of Logic, Language, and Information. This book is based on the Ph.D. thesis of Gabriele Puppis, who was the winner of the E.W. Beth dissertation award for 2007. Puppis' thesis focuses on Logic and Computation and, more specifically, on automata-based decidability techniques for time granularity and on a new method for deciding Monadic Second Order theories of trees. The results presented represent a significant step towards a better understanding of the changes in granularity levels that humans make so easily in cognition of time, space, and other phenomena, whereas their logical and computational structure poses difficult conceptual and computational challenges.


Author : Arthur Barnes Ford
Publisher :
Release : 1976
Page : 36
Category : Gabbro
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Description of newly named units in a differentiated stratiform mafic intrusion in northern Pensacola Mountains of Antarctica.