Logic Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Jean Hyppolite
Publisher : SUNY Press
Release :
Page : 212
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1438407416
Description :


This first English translation illuminates Hegelianism's most obscure dialectical synthesis: the relation between the phenomenology and the logic. This book is essential for understanding the development of French thought in this century.


Author : Martin Heidegger
Publisher : Indiana University Press
Release : 2010-03-22
Page : 377
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 0253004454
Description :


Heidegger’s radical thinking on the meaning of truth in a “clear and comprehensive critical edition” (Philosophy in Review). Martin Heidegger’s 1925–26 lectures on truth and time provided much of the basis for his momentous work, Being and Time. Not published until 1976—three months before Heidegger’s death—as volume 21 of his Complete Works, it is nonetheless central to Heidegger’s overall project of reinterpreting Western thought in terms of time and truth. The text shows the degree to which Aristotle underlies Heidegger’s hermeneutical theory of meaning. It also contains Heidegger’s first published critique of Husserl and takes major steps toward establishing the temporal bases of logic and truth. Thomas Sheehan’s elegant and insightful translation offers English-speaking readers access to this fundamental text for the first time.


Author : Richard L. Epstein
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2006-07-23
Page : 522
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 0691123004
Description :


In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proofs and the insights behind the proofs, as well as detailed and nontrivial examples and problems. The book has more than 550 exercises. It can be used in advanced undergraduate or graduate courses and for self-study and reference. Classical Mathematical Logic presents a unified treatment of material that until now has been available only by consulting many different books and research articles, written with various notation systems and axiomatizations.


Author : Geoffrey Hunter
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 1973-06-26
Page : 288
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0520023560
Description :


This work makes available to readers without specialized training in mathematics complete proofs of the fundamental metatheorems of standard (i.e., basically truth-functional) first order logic. Included is a complete proof, accessible to non-mathematicians, of the undecidability of first order logic, the most important fact about logic to emerge from the work of the last half-century. Hunter explains concepts of mathematics and set theory along the way for the benefit of non-mathematicians. He also provides ample exercises with comprehensive answers.


Author : Bobby Hall
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release : 2019-03-26
Page : 288
Category : Fiction
ISBN 13 : 1982127155
Description :


The stunning debut novel from one of the most creative artists of our generation, Bobby Hall, a.k.a. Logic. “Bobby Hall has crafted a mind-bending first novel, with prose that is just as fierce and moving as his lyrics. Supermarket is like Naked Lunch meets One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest—if they met at Fight Club.”—Ernest Cline, #1 New York Times Bestselling author of Ready Player One Flynn is stuck—depressed, recently dumped, and living at his mom’s house. The supermarket was supposed to change all that. An ordinary job and a steady check. Work isn’t work when it’s saving you from yourself. But things aren’t quite as they seem in these aisles. Arriving to work one day to a crime scene, Flynn’s world collapses as the secrets of his tortured mind are revealed. And Flynn doesn’t want to go looking for answers at the supermarket. Because something there seems to be looking for him. A darkly funny psychological thriller, Supermarket is a gripping exploration into madness and creativity. Who knew you could find sex, drugs, and murder all in aisle nine?


Author : Howard DeLong
Publisher : Dover Publications
Release : 2004-06-17
Page : 336
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Anyone seeking a readable and relatively brief guide to logic can do no better than this classic introduction. A treat for both the intellect and the imagination, it profiles the development of logic from ancient to modern times and compellingly examines the nature of logic and its philosophical implications. No prior knowledge of logic is necessary; readers need only an acquaintance with high school mathematics. The author emphasizes understanding, rather than technique, and focuses on such topics as the historical reasons for the formation of Aristotelian logic, the rise of mathematical logic after more than 2,000 years of traditional logic, the nature of the formal axiomatic method and the reasons for its use, and the main results of metatheory and their philosophic import. The treatment of the Gödel metatheorems is especially detailed and clear, and answers to the problems appear at the end.


Author : Jean Cavailles
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2021-03-14
Page : 144
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 173362810X
Description :


A new translation of the final work of French philosopher Jean Cavaillès. In this short, dense essay, Jean Cavaillès evaluates philosophical efforts to determine the origin--logical or ontological--of scientific thought, arguing that, rather than seeking to found science in original intentional acts, a priori meanings, or foundational logical relations, any adequate theory must involve a history of the concept. Cavaillès insists on a historical epistemology that is conceptual rather than phenomenological, and a logic that is dialectical rather than transcendental. His famous call (cited by Foucault) to abandon "a philosophy of consciousness" for "a philosophy of the concept" was crucial in displacing the focus of philosophical enquiry from aprioristic foundations toward structural historical shifts in the conceptual fabric. This new translation of Cavaillès's final work, written in 1942 during his imprisonment for Resistance activities, presents an opportunity to reencounter an original and lucid thinker. Cavaillès's subtle adjudication between positivistic claims that science has no need of philosophy, and philosophers' obstinate disregard for actual scientific events, speaks to a dilemma that remains pertinent for us today. His affirmation of the authority of scientific thinking combined with his commitment to conceptual creation yields a radical defense of the freedom of thought and the possibility of the new.


Author : Raymond M. Smullyan
Publisher : Courier Corporation
Release : 2014-07-23
Page : 288
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 0486492370
Description :


Written by a creative master of mathematical logic, this introductory text combines stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic. Author Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts. He highlights each subject with inventive explanations and unique problems. Smullyan's accessible narrative provides memorable examples of concepts related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, incompleteness theorems, and incompleteness proofs. Additional topics include undecidability, combinatoric logic, and recursion theory. Suitable for undergraduate and graduate courses, this book will also amuse and enlighten mathematically minded readers. Dover (2014) original publication. See every Dover book in print at www.doverpublications.com


Author : John MacFarlane
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-11-29
Page : 258
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1351733559
Description :


Introductory logic is generally taught as a straightforward technical discipline. In this book, John MacFarlane helps the reader think about the limitations of, presuppositions of, and alternatives to classical first-order predicate logic, making this an ideal introduction to philosophical logic for any student who already has completed an introductory logic course. The book explores the following questions. Are there quantificational idioms that cannot be expressed with the familiar universal and existential quantifiers? How can logic be extended to capture modal notions like necessity and obligation? Does the material conditional adequately capture the meaning of 'if'—and if not, what are the alternatives? Should logical consequence be understood in terms of models or in terms of proofs? Can one intelligibly question the validity of basic logical principles like Modus Ponens or Double Negation Elimination? Is the fact that classical logic validates the inference from a contradiction to anything a flaw, and if so, how can logic be modified to repair it? How, exactly, is logic related to reasoning? Must classical logic be revised in order to be applied to vague language, and if so how? Each chapter is organized around suggested readings and includes exercises designed to deepen the reader's understanding. Key Features: An integrated treatment of the technical and philosophical issues comprising philosophical logic Designed to serve students taking only one course in logic beyond the introductory level Provides tools and concepts necessary to understand work in many areas of analytic philosophy Includes exercises, suggested readings, and suggestions for further exploration in each chapter


Author : Merrie Bergmann
James Moor
Publisher : McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
Release : 2008-07-30
Page : 696
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9780073535630
Description :


This leading text for symbolic or formal logic courses presents all techniques and concepts with clear, comprehensive explanations, and includes a wealth of carefully constructed examples. Its flexible organization (with all chapters complete and self-contained) allows instructors the freedom to cover the topics they want in the order they choose.


Author : Jc Beall
Shay Allen Logan
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-02-14
Page : 288
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9781138852273
Description :


Logic: The Basicsis an accessible introduction to several core areas of logic. The first part of the book features a self-contained introduction to the standard topics in classical logic, such as: � mathematical preliminaries � propositional logic � quantified logic (first monadic, then polyadic) � English and standard 'symbolic translations' � tableau procedures. Alongside comprehensive coverage of the standard topics, this thoroughly revised second edition also introduces several philosophically important nonclassical logics, free logics, and modal logics, and gives the reader an idea of how they can take their knowledge further. With its wealth of exercises (solutions available in the encyclopedic online supplement), Logic: The Basics is a useful textbook for courses ranging from the introductory level to the early graduate level, and also as a reference for students and researchers in philosophical logic.


Author : Barry R. Clarke
Publisher : Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
Release : 2003
Page : 95
Category : Games & Activities
ISBN 13 : 9781402705410
Description :


How well do you think logically? Find out with these puzzles. But don't forget the degree of difficulty increases as you go.


Author : Dirk van Dalen
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2012-11-13
Page : 263
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 9781447145578
Description :


Dirk van Dalen’s popular textbook Logic and Structure, now in its fifth edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the basics of classical and intuitionistic logic, model theory and Gödel’s famous incompleteness theorem. Propositional and predicate logic are presented in an easy-to-read style using Gentzen’s natural deduction. The book proceeds with some basic concepts and facts of model theory: a discussion on compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, non-standard models and quantifier elimination. The discussion of classical logic is concluded with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, intuitionistic logic and Kripke semantics is carefully explored. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property are also included. The last chapter on Gödel's first incompleteness theorem is self-contained and provides a systematic exposition of the necessary recursion theory. This new edition has been properly revised and contains a new section on ultra-products.


Author : Bertrand Russell
Publisher : Spokesman Books
Release : 2007
Page : 382
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 0851247342
Description :


Many of Bertrand Russell's most important essays in logic and the theory of knowledge were not easily available until Professor Marsh collected them together in 1956. This work is now the best source of Russell's views in these areas and is firmly established as a philosophical classic in its own right.


Author : Frithjof Dau
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-11-24
Page : 213
Category : Computers
ISBN 13 : 3540206078
Description :


The aim of contextual logic is to provide a formal theory of elementary logic, which is based on the doctrines of concepts, judgements, and conclusions. Concepts are mathematized using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), while an approach to the formalization of judgements and conclusions is conceptual graphs, based on Peirce's existential graphs. Combining FCA and a mathematization of conceptual graphs yields so-called concept graphs, which offer a formal and diagrammatic theory of elementary logic. Expressing negation in contextual logic is a difficult task. Based on the author's dissertation, this book shows how negation on the level of judgements can be implemented. To do so, cuts (syntactical devices used to express negation) are added to concept graphs. As we can express relations between objects, conjunction and negation in judgements, and existential quantification, the author demonstrates that concept graphs with cuts have the expressive power of first-order predicate logic. While doing so, the author distinguishes between syntax and semantics, and provides a sound and complete calculus for concept graphs with cuts. The author's treatment is mathematically thorough and consistent, and the book gives the necessary background on existential and conceptual graphs.


Author : Anita Wasilewska
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-03
Page : 535
Category : Computers
ISBN 13 : 3319925911
Description :


Providing an in-depth introduction to fundamental classical and non-classical logics, this textbook offers a comprehensive survey of logics for computer scientists. Logics for Computer Science contains intuitive introductory chapters explaining the need for logical investigations, motivations for different types of logics and some of their history. They are followed by strict formal approach chapters. All chapters contain many detailed examples explaining each of the introduced notions and definitions, well chosen sets of exercises with carefully written solutions, and sets of homework. While many logic books are available, they were written by logicians for logicians, not for computer scientists. They usually choose one particular way of presenting the material and use a specialized language. Logics for Computer Science discusses Gentzen as well as Hilbert formalizations, first order theories, the Hilbert Program, Godel's first and second incompleteness theorems and their proofs. It also introduces and discusses some many valued logics, modal logics and introduces algebraic models for classical, intuitionistic, and modal S4 and S5 logics. The theory of computation is based on concepts defined by logicians and mathematicians. Logic plays a fundamental role in computer science, and this book explains the basic theorems, as well as different techniques of proving them in classical and some non-classical logics. Important applications derived from concepts of logic for computer technology include Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering. In addition to Computer Science, this book may also find an audience in mathematics and philosophy courses, and some of the chapters are also useful for a course in Artificial Intelligence.


Author : Carlo Cellucci
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-09
Page : 389
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9400760914
Description :


This volume examines the limitations of mathematical logic and proposes a new approach to logic intended to overcome them. To this end, the book compares mathematical logic with earlier views of logic, both in the ancient and in the modern age, including those of Plato, Aristotle, Bacon, Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant. From the comparison it is apparent that a basic limitation of mathematical logic is that it narrows down the scope of logic confining it to the study of deduction, without providing tools for discovering anything new. As a result, mathematical logic has had little impact on scientific practice. Therefore, this volume proposes a view of logic according to which logic is intended, first of all, to provide rules of discovery, that is, non-deductive rules for finding hypotheses to solve problems. This is essential if logic is to play any relevant role in mathematics, science and even philosophy. To comply with this view of logic, this volume formulates several rules of discovery, such as induction, analogy, generalization, specialization, metaphor, metonymy, definition, and diagrams. A logic based on such rules is basically a logic of discovery, and involves a new view of the relation of logic to evolution, language, reason, method and knowledge, particularly mathematical knowledge. It also involves a new view of the relation of philosophy to knowledge. This book puts forward such new views, trying to open again many doors that the founding fathers of mathematical logic had closed historically.


Author : Heinz-Dieter Ebbinghaus
Jörg Flum
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-05-29
Page : 304
Category : Mathematics
ISBN 13 : 9783030738389
Description :


This introduction to first-order logic clearly works out the role of first-order logic in the foundations of mathematics, particularly the two basic questions of the range of the axiomatic method and of theorem-proving by machines. It covers several advanced topics not commonly treated in introductory texts, such as Fraïssé's characterization of elementary equivalence, Lindström's theorem on the maximality of first-order logic, and the fundamentals of logic programming.


Author : Victor Peter Nelson
David Irwin
Publisher : Pearson
Release : 1995
Page : 842
Category : Computers
ISBN 13 :
Description :


A text developed from a previous work, An Introduction to Computer Logic (1974) by Nagle, Carroll, and Irwin, which was a widely adopted text on the fundamentals of combinational and sequential logic circuit analysis and synthesis. The present text retains its predecessor's strong coverage of fundamental theory. To address practical design issues, over half of the text is new material that reflects the many changes which have occurred in recent years, including modular design, CAD methods, and the use of programmable logic, as well as such practical issues as device timing characteristics and standard logic symbols. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR


Author : Catherine Brady
Publisher : Macmillan International Higher Education
Release : 2010-09-15
Page : 208
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
ISBN 13 : 1137037202
Description :


This book illuminates how technique serves 'story logic,' the particular way fiction makes meaning. Writers raid the cupboard of theory looking for what works, and generic rules don't account for the rich variety of strategies they employ. For writers who are past the beginner stage, Brady offers a closer look at craft fundamentals, including plot, characterization, patterns of imagery, and style. The lively, lucid discussion draws on vivid examples from classic and contemporary fiction, ranging from George Eliot and William Faulkner to Haruki Murakami and Toni Morrison. Because it supplies the analytical tools needed to read as a writer, this text will enrich the reader's approach to any work of fiction, energizing discussion in a workshop or craft course.