Measuring Racial Discrimination Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-07-24
Page : 334
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0309091268
Description :


Many racial and ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and others, have historically faced severe discriminationâ€"pervasive and open denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. Today, large differences among racial and ethnic groups continue to exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, criminal justice, health, and other areas. While many factors may contribute to such differences, their size and extent suggest that various forms of discriminatory treatment persist in U.S. society and serve to undercut the achievement of equal opportunity. Measuring Racial Discrimination considers the definition of race and racial discrimination, reviews the existing techniques used to measure racial discrimination, and identifies new tools and areas for future research. The book conducts a thorough evaluation of current methodologies for a wide range of circumstances in which racial discrimination may occur, and makes recommendations on how to better assess the presence and effects of discrimination.


Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-06-24
Page : 334
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9780309133333
Description :


Many racial and ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and others, have historically faced severe discriminationâ€"pervasive and open denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. Today, large differences among racial and ethnic groups continue to exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, criminal justice, health, and other areas. While many factors may contribute to such differences, their size and extent suggest that various forms of discriminatory treatment persist in U.S. society and serve to undercut the achievement of equal opportunity. Measuring Racial Discrimination considers the definition of race and racial discrimination, reviews the existing techniques used to measure racial discrimination, and identifies new tools and areas for future research. The book conducts a thorough evaluation of current methodologies for a wide range of circumstances in which racial discrimination may occur, and makes recommendations on how to better assess the presence and effects of discrimination.


Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher :
Release : 2004-06-24
Page : 334
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9780309469234
Description :


Many racial and ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and others, have historically faced severe discriminationâe"pervasive and open denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. Today, large differences among racial and ethnic groups continue to exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, criminal justice, health, and other areas. While many factors may contribute to such differences, their size and extent suggest that various forms of discriminatory treatment persist in U.S. society and serve to undercut the achievement of equal opportunity. Measuring Racial Discrimination considers the definition of race and racial discrimination, reviews the existing techniques used to measure racial discrimination, and identifies new tools and areas for future research. The book conducts a thorough evaluation of current methodologies for a wide range of circumstances in which racial discrimination may occur, and makes recommendations on how to better assess the presence and effects of discrimination.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2004
Page :
Category : Electronic book
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Robert T. Carter
Alex L. Pieterse
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2020-07-21
Page : 432
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0231550138
Description :


A large body of research has established a causal relationship between experiences of racial discrimination and adverse effects on mental and physical health. In Measuring the Effects of Racism, Robert T. Carter and Alex L. Pieterse offer a manual for mental health professionals on how to understand, assess, and treat the effects of racism as a psychological injury. Carter and Pieterse provide guidance on how to recognize the psychological effects of racism and racial discrimination. They propose an approach to understanding racism that connects particular experiences and incidents with a person’s individual psychological and emotional response. They detail how to evaluate the specific effects of race-based encounters that produce psychological distress and possibly impairment or trauma. Carter and Pieterse outline therapeutic interventions for use with individuals and groups who have experienced racial trauma, and they draw attention to the importance of racial awareness for practitioners. The book features a racial-trauma assessment toolkit, including a race-based traumatic-stress symptoms scale and interview schedule. Useful for both scholars and practitioners, including social workers, educators, and counselors, Measuring the Effects of Racism offers a new framework of race-based traumatic stress that helps legitimize psychological reactions to experiences of racism.


Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2005-03-28
Page : 110
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9780309181563
Description :


It has been clear for at least 50 years the disadvantages that small businesses face in competing for U.S. government contracts. The Small Business Act of 1953 created the Small Business Administration (SBA), an independent agency in the executive branch that counsels and assists specific types of small businesses including firms owned by minorities and other socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and firms owned by women. Women-owned small businesses, however, are underrepresented or substantially underrepresented in some industries. In 2002, the SBA Office of Federal Contract Assistance for Women Business Owners (CAWBO) organized a draft study containing a preliminary set of approximations of the representation of women-owned small businesses in federal prime contracts over $25,000 by industry. Because of the past legal challenges to race- and gender-conscious contracting programs at the federal and local levels, the SBA asked the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academies to conduct an independent review of relevant data and estimation methods prior to finalizing the CAWBO study. The Steering Committee on Women-Owned Small Businesses in Federal Contracting was created and charged with holding a workshop to discuss topics including the accuracy of data and methods to estimate the use of women-owned small businesses in federal contracting and the definition of "underrepresentation" and "substantial underrepresentation" in designating industries for which preferential contracting programs might be warranted. Analyzing Information on Women-Owned Small Businesses in Federal Contracting presents the committee's report as well as the recommendations that committees have made.


Author : David Arnold
Publisher :
Release : 2020
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :


There is growing concern that the rise of algorithmic decision-making can lead to discrimination against legally protected groups, but measuring such algorithmic discrimination is often hampered by a fundamental selection challenge. We develop new quasi-experimental tools to overcome this challenge and measure algorithmic discrimination in the setting of pretrial bail decisions. We first show that the selection challenge reduces to the challenge of measuring four moments: the mean latent qualification of white and Black individuals and the race-specific covariance between qualification and the algorithm's treatment recommendation. We then show how these four moments can be estimated by extrapolating quasi-experimental variation across as-good-as-randomly assigned decision-makers. Estimates from New York City show that a sophisticated machine learning algorithm discriminates against Black defendants, even though defendant race and ethnicity are not included in the training data. The algorithm recommends releasing white defendants before trial at an 8 percentage point (11 percent) higher rate than Black defendants with identical potential for pretrial misconduct, with this unwarranted disparity explaining 77 percent of the observed racial disparity in algorithmic recommendations. We find a similar level of algorithmic discrimination with regression-based recommendations, using a model inspired by a widely used pretrial risk assessment tool.


Author : United States. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Policy Development and Research. Division of Evaluation
Publisher :
Release : 1979
Page : 316
Category : African Americans
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-09-08
Page : 184
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9780309165860
Description :


As the population of older Americans grows, it is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. Differences in health by racial and ethnic status could be increasingly consequential for health policy and programs. Such differences are are not simply a matter of education or ability to pay for health care. For instance, Asian Americans and Hispanics appear to be in better health, on a number of indicators, than White Americans, despite, on average, lower socioeconomic status. The reasons are complex, including possible roles for such factors as selective migration, risk behaviors, exposure to various stressors, patient attitudes, and geographic variation in health care. This volume, produced by a multidisciplinary panel, considers such possible explanations for racial and ethnic health differentials within an integrated framework. It provides a concise summary of available research and lays out a research agenda to address the many uncertainties in current knowledge. It recommends, for instance, looking at health differentials across the life course and deciphering the links between factors presumably producing differentials and biopsychosocial mechanisms that lead to impaired health.


Author : United States. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Policy Development and Research. Division of Evaluation
Publisher :
Release : 1979
Page : 30
Category : African Americans
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Alvin N. Alvarez
Christopher T. H. Liang
Publisher : American Psychological Association (APA)
Release : 2016
Page : 356
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 9781433820953
Description :


Introduction -- Theoretical and methodological foundations -- A theoretical overview of the impact of racism on people of color / Alex Pieterse and Shantel Powell -- Applying intersectionality theory to research on perceived racism / Jioni A. Lewis and Patrick R. Grzanka -- Improving the measurement of perceived racial discrimination : challenges and opportunities / David R. Williams -- Moderators and mediators of the experience of perceived racism / Alvin Alvarez, Christopher T.H. Liang, Carin Molenaar, and David Nguyen -- Context and costs -- Racism and mental health : examining the link between racism and depression from a social-cognitive perspective / Elizabeth Brondolo, Wan Ng, Kristy-Lee J. Pierre, and Robert Lane -- Racism and behavioral outcomes over the life course / Gilbert C. Gee and Angie Denisse Otiniano Verissimo -- Racism and physical health disparities / Joseph Keaweaimoku Kaholokula -- The impact of racism on education and the educational experiences of students of color / Adrienne D. Dixson, Dominique Clayton, Leah Peoples, and Rema Reynolds -- The costs of racism on workforce entry and work adjustment / Justin C. Perry and Lela L. Pickett -- The impact of racism on communities of color : historical contexts and contemporary issues / Azara L. Santiago Rivera, Hector Y. Adames, Nayeli Y. Chavez-Dueñas, and Gregory Benson-Flórez -- Interventions and future directions -- Racial trauma recovery : a race-informed therapeutic approach to racial wounds / Lillian Comas-Díaz -- Critical race, psychology and social policy : refusing damage, cataloguing oppression, and documenting desire / Michelle Fine and William E. Cross -- Educational interventions for reducing racism / Elizabeth Vera, Daniel Camacho, Megan Polanin, and Manuel Salgado -- Toward a relevant psychology of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination : linking science and practice to develop interventions that work in community settings / Ignacio D. Acevedo-Polakovich, Kara L. Beck, Erin Hawks, and Sarah E. Ogdie


Author : David Arnold
Will S. Dobbie
Publisher :
Release : 2020
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :


We develop new quasi-experimental tools to measure racial discrimination in the context of bail decisions. Observational comparisons of white and black pretrial release rates suffer from omitted variables bias when there are unobserved racial differences in pretrial misconduct potential. We show that the bias in these observational comparisons is a function of average white and black misconduct risk, which can be estimated from the quasi-random assignment of bail judges. Estimates from New York City show that less than one-third of the release rate disparity between white and black defendants is explained by unobserved differences in misconduct potential, with more than two-thirds explained by racial discrimination. We then develop a hierarchical marginal treatment effects model that imposes additional structure on the quasi-experimental variation to investigate the drivers of this discrimination. Model estimates show that discrimination in bail decisions is driven by both racial bias and statistical discrimination, with the latter coming from a higher level of average risk and less precise risk signals for black defendants.


Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-09-09
Page : 310
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309092310
Description :


Disparities in health and health care across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States are well documented. The reasons for these disparities are, however, not well understood. Current data available on race, ethnicity, SEP, and accumulation and language use are severely limited. The report examines data collection and reporting systems relating to the collection of data on race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic position and offers recommendations.


Author : Ronald E. Wienk
United States. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Policy Development and Research
Publisher :
Release : 1979
Page : 341
Category : African Americans
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-03-23
Page : 408
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 0309467136
Description :


Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term "proactive policing" to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred. Proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. Today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the United States. They are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing. Proactive Policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and U.S. communities.


Author : Benjamin Wiggins
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2020-10-08
Page : 176
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 0197504019
Description :


In Calculating Race, Benjamin Wiggins analyzes the historical relationship between statistical risk assessment and race in the United States. He illustrates how, through a reliance on the variable of race, actuarial science transformed the nature of racism and helped usher racial disparities in wealth, incarceration, and housing from the nineteenth century into the twentieth. Wiggins begins by tracing how the life insurance industry utilized race in its calculations at the end of the nineteenth century, focusing particularly on Prudential and its aggressive battles with state regulators to discriminate against clients and adjust rates on the basis of race. He then turns his focus to the collection of racial statistics in the Illinois state penitentiary system in the late nineteenth century and the state's subsequent development of predictive sentencing and parole formulas in the 1920s that weighed race as a key factor. Next, he investigates the role of race in the state-sponsored mortgage insurance program of the Federal Housing Administration between the start of the New Deal and the beginning of the Cold War and its prolonged effects on mortgage lending. Wiggins concludes with an analysis of the use of race in the statistical risk assessments across financial institutions and government programs during the post-civil rights movement era, and how that practice has been transformed in the twenty-first century through "proxy" variables which stand in for the now taboo category of race. Offering readers a new perspective on the historical importance of actuarial science in structural racism, Calculating Race is a particularly timely contribution as Big Data and algorithmic decision making increasingly pervade our lives.


Author : Etats-Unis. Department of housing and urban development. Office of policy development and research
Publisher :
Release : 1979
Page : 276
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Ibram X. Kendi
Publisher : One World
Release : 2019-08-13
Page : 320
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 0525509291
Description :


#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • From the National Book Award–winning author of Stamped from the Beginning comes a “groundbreaking” (Time) approach to understanding and uprooting racism and inequality in our society—and in ourselves. “The most courageous book to date on the problem of race in the Western mind.”—The New York Times NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY The New York Times Book Review • Time • NPR • The Washington Post • Shelf Awareness • Library Journal • Publishers Weekly • Kirkus Reviews Antiracism is a transformative concept that reorients and reenergizes the conversation about racism—and, even more fundamentally, points us toward liberating new ways of thinking about ourselves and each other. At its core, racism is a powerful system that creates false hierarchies of human value; its warped logic extends beyond race, from the way we regard people of different ethnicities or skin colors to the way we treat people of different sexes, gender identities, and body types. Racism intersects with class and culture and geography and even changes the way we see and value ourselves. In How to Be an Antiracist, Kendi takes readers through a widening circle of antiracist ideas—from the most basic concepts to visionary possibilities—that will help readers see all forms of racism clearly, understand their poisonous consequences, and work to oppose them in our systems and in ourselves. Kendi weaves an electrifying combination of ethics, history, law, and science with his own personal story of awakening to antiracism. This is an essential work for anyone who wants to go beyond the awareness of racism to the next step: contributing to the formation of a just and equitable society. Praise for How to Be an Antiracist “Ibram X. Kendi’s new book, How to Be an Antiracist, couldn’t come at a better time. . . . Kendi has gifted us with a book that is not only an essential instruction manual but also a memoir of the author’s own path from anti-black racism to anti-white racism and, finally, to antiracism. . . . How to Be an Antiracist gives us a clear and compelling way to approach, as Kendi puts it in his introduction, ‘the basic struggle we’re all in, the struggle to be fully human and to see that others are fully human.’ ”—NPR “Kendi dissects why in a society where so few people consider themselves to be racist the divisions and inequalities of racism remain so prevalent. How to Be an Antiracist punctures the myths of a post-racial America, examining what racism really is—and what we should do about it.”—Time


Author : National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing
Publisher :
Release : 1979
Page : 30
Category : Discrimination in housing
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : National Research Council
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-10-16
Page : 752
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0309092116
Description :


In their later years, Americans of different racial and ethnic backgrounds are not in equally good--or equally poor--health. There is wide variation, but on average older Whites are healthier than older Blacks and tend to outlive them. But Whites tend to be in poorer health than Hispanics and Asian Americans. This volume documents the differentials and considers possible explanations. Selection processes play a role: selective migration, for instance, or selective survival to advanced ages. Health differentials originate early in life, possibly even before birth, and are affected by events and experiences throughout the life course. Differences in socioeconomic status, risk behavior, social relations, and health care all play a role. Separate chapters consider the contribution of such factors and the biopsychosocial mechanisms that link them to health. This volume provides the empirical evidence for the research agenda provided in the separate report of the Panel on Race, Ethnicity, and Health in Later Life.