Metazoa Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publisher : Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Release : 2020-11-10
Page : 352
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0374720185
Description :


"Enthralling . . . breathtaking . . . Metazoa brings an extraordinary and astute look at our own mind’s essential link to the animal world." —The New York Times Book Review (Editors' Choice) "A great book . . . [Godfrey-Smith is] brilliant at describing just what he sees, the patterns of behaviour of the animals he observes." —Nigel Warburton, Five Books The scuba-diving philosopher who wrote Other Minds explores the origins of animal consciousness Dip below the ocean’s surface and you are soon confronted by forms of life that could not seem more foreign to our own: sea sponges, soft corals, and serpulid worms, whose rooted bodies, intricate geometry, and flower-like appendages are more reminiscent of plant life or even architecture than anything recognizably animal. Yet these creatures are our cousins. As fellow members of the animal kingdom—the Metazoa—they can teach us much about the evolutionary origins of not only our bodies, but also our minds. In his acclaimed 2016 book, Other Minds, the philosopher and scuba diver Peter Godfrey-Smith explored the mind of the octopus—the closest thing to an intelligent alien on Earth. In Metazoa, Godfrey-Smith expands his inquiry to animals at large, investigating the evolution of subjective experience with the assistance of far-flung species. As he delves into what it feels like to perceive and interact with the world as other life-forms do, Godfrey-Smith shows that the appearance of the animal body well over half a billion years ago was a profound innovation that set life upon a new path. In accessible, riveting prose, he charts the ways that subsequent evolutionary developments—eyes that track, for example, and bodies that move through and manipulate the environment—shaped the subjective lives of animals. Following the evolutionary paths of a glass sponge, soft coral, banded shrimp, octopus, and fish, then moving onto land and the world of insects, birds, and primates like ourselves, Metazoa gathers their stories together in a way that bridges the gap between mind and matter, addressing one of the most vexing philosophical problems: that of consciousness. Combining vivid animal encounters with philosophical reflections and the latest news from biology, Metazoa reveals that even in our high-tech, AI-driven times, there is no understanding our minds without understanding nerves, muscles, and active bodies. The story that results is as rich and vibrant as life itself.


Author : Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publisher :
Release : 2020
Page : 336
Category : Consciousness
ISBN 13 : 9780008321192
Description :


Expands an inquiry to animals at large, investigating the evolution of experience with the assistance of far-flung species. Godfrey-Smith shows that the appearance of the first animal body form well over half a billion years ago was a profound innovation that set life upon a new path


Author : Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publisher : Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Release : 2016-12-06
Page : 272
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0374712808
Description :


A philosopher dons a wet suit and journeys into the depths of consciousness in Other Minds Although mammals and birds are widely regarded as the smartest creatures on earth, it has lately become clear that a very distant branch of the tree of life has also sprouted higher intelligence: the cephalopods, consisting of the squid, the cuttlefish, and above all the octopus. In captivity, octopuses have been known to identify individual human keepers, raid neighboring tanks for food, turn off lightbulbs by spouting jets of water, plug drains, and make daring escapes. How is it that a creature with such gifts evolved through an evolutionary lineage so radically distant from our own? What does it mean that evolution built minds not once but at least twice? The octopus is the closest we will come to meeting an intelligent alien. What can we learn from the encounter? In Other Minds, Peter Godfrey-Smith, a distinguished philosopher of science and a skilled scuba diver, tells a bold new story of how subjective experience crept into being—how nature became aware of itself. As Godfrey-Smith stresses, it is a story that largely occurs in the ocean, where animals first appeared. Tracking the mind’s fitful development, Godfrey-Smith shows how unruly clumps of seaborne cells began living together and became capable of sensing, acting, and signaling. As these primitive organisms became more entangled with others, they grew more complicated. The first nervous systems evolved, probably in ancient relatives of jellyfish; later on, the cephalopods, which began as inconspicuous mollusks, abandoned their shells and rose above the ocean floor, searching for prey and acquiring the greater intelligence needed to do so. Taking an independent route, mammals and birds later began their own evolutionary journeys. But what kind of intelligence do cephalopods possess? Drawing on the latest scientific research and his own scuba-diving adventures, Godfrey-Smith probes the many mysteries that surround the lineage. How did the octopus, a solitary creature with little social life, become so smart? What is it like to have eight tentacles that are so packed with neurons that they virtually “think for themselves”? What happens when some octopuses abandon their hermit-like ways and congregate, as they do in a unique location off the coast of Australia? By tracing the question of inner life back to its roots and comparing human beings with our most remarkable animal relatives, Godfrey-Smith casts crucial new light on the octopus mind—and on our own.


Author : Jere H. Lipps
Philip W. Signor
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-21
Page : 570
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1489924272
Description :


Several years ago, we realized that the most prominent ideas that had been ex pressed about the origin and early evolution of the Metazoa seemed to have been developed chiefly by zoologists using evidence from modern species without reference to the fossil record. Paleontologists had, in fact, put forth their own ideas but the zoological and the paleontological evidence were about the problem, seldom considered together, especially by zoologists. We believed that the paleon tological documentation of the first Metazoa was too scattered, too obscure to Western readers, and much of it too recent to have been readily available to our colleagues in zoology. Whether or not that was entirely true, we thought that a single volume reviewing the fossil record of the earliest Metazoa would be useful to many in both paleontology and zoology, especially since so much new informa tion has been developed in the last few years. Some of this information has been summarized in general articles recently, but an overview of most of the field does not exist. We therefore organized this book in five parts so that the evidence could be placed in perspective and summarized and inferences made from it. Part I intro duces the previous hypotheses that have been proposed for the origin and early radiation of Metazoa. Part II consists of two summary chapters that set the sedi mentological, geochemical, and biological background to the known radiations of Metazoa.


Author : Ellsworth C. Dougherty
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release :
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Sally Leys
Andreas Hejnol
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-05-24
Page : 186
Category : Nature
ISBN 13 : 1315388200
Description :


The evolution of animal diversity is strongly affected by the origin of novel cell and tissue types and their interactions with each other. Understanding the evolution of cell types will shed light on the evolution of novel structures, and in turn highlight how animals diversified. Several cell types may also have been lost as animals simplified – for example did sponges have nerves and lose them? This book reveals the interplay between gains and losses and provides readers with a better grasp of the evolutionary history of cell types. In addition, the book illustrates how new cell types allow a better understanding permitting the discrimination between convergence and homology.


Author : Jere H. Lipps
Philip W. Signor
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1992-08-31
Page : 570
Category : Nature
ISBN 13 : 9780306440670
Description :


This text for the graduate or advanced undergraduate student assembles the latest information summarizing regional, systematic, and theoretical aspects of the early metazoa. The work consists of articles written by experts from around the world and includes literature from Russia and China translated for the first time into English.


Author : Werner E.G. Müller
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 185
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3642722369
Description :


Recently, new genes and their proteins that revealed striking new insights into the early evolution of multicellular animals have been identified and characterized from members of the lowest metazoan phylum, the porifera (sponges). The unexpected result was that the sequences obtained from sponge displayed high similarity to those found in higher metazoa; in consequence, it was concluded that during the transition from protozoa to metazoa the major structural and regulatory proteins evolved only once. The data gathered are now powerful arguments to establish monophyly of metazoa; in addition, new insights on the evolutionary diversification of metazoa were obtained.


Author : Werner E.G. Müller
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 189
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3642487459
Description :


This volume concentrates on the origin of multicellular animals, Metazoa. Until now, no unequivocal phylogeny has been produced. Therefore, the questions remain: Did Metazoa evolve from the Protozoa only once, or several times? Is the origin of animals monophyletic or polyphyletic? Especially the relationships between the existing lower metazoan phyla, particularly the Porifera (sponges) are uncertain. Based on sequence data of genes typical for multicellularity it is demonstrated that all Metazoa, including Porifera, should be placed into the kingdom Animalia together with the Eumetazoa. Therefore it is most likely that all animals are of monophyletic origin.


Author : Jovan Hadži
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-09-03
Page : 512
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1483226638
Description :


Zoology, Volume 16: The Evolution of the Metozoa presents the significant results of the Cnidaria research, their interpretations and implications in the field of zoology. This book is composed of four chapters, and begins with the establishment of the systematic position of the Spongiae, the position of Ctenophora in the animal classification, and Cnidaria as the only Coelenterata. The subsequent chapter deals with a critical survey of the interpretations of the origin and nature of Cnidaria, with emphasis on the morphologic proofs of its phylogeny. These topics are followed by an outline of the most probable reconstruction of the phylogeny of Cnidaria and the descriptions of the evolution of this metozoa. The final chapter considers the established classification of the animal world and the genealogical tree. This book will be of value to zoologists and researchers who are interested in evolution and classification of Cnidaria.


Author : D. C. Smith
Y. Tiffon
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-10-22
Page : 188
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1483145727
Description :


Nutrition in the Lower Metazoa contains the proceedings of a meeting held at the University of Caen, France on September 11-13, 1979. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins with a discussion of the phagocytosis in Polycelis tenuis and adaptational aspects in feeding in freshwater triclads. Subsequent chapters explore selection in sponge feeding processes; nutrition in symbiotic Turbellaria; some effects of diet on the biology of the rotifers; and the role of nutrition in the establishment of the green hydra symbiosis. The phosphorus economy of the green hydra symbiosis and the nutrition of marine sponges are also explained.


Author : Peter R. Grant
Henry S. Horn
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2014-07-14
Page : 194
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1400862671
Description :


Through an integration of systematics, genetics, and related disciplines, the Modern Synthesis of Evolutionary Biology came into being over fifty years ago. Knowledge of evolution has since been transformed by several revolutions: the way we interpret the fossil record has been radically affected by theories of continental drift and asteroid impacts; the way we classify organisms has been influenced by the development of cladistics. Perhaps the most dramatic revolution has been the explosion in molecular biology of information about the genome. Aiming to capture the excitement of modern evolutionary biology, six prominent scientists here explore important issues and problems in their areas of specialization and identify the most promising directions of future research. The scope of this volume ranges from macroevolutionary patterns in the Precambrian to molecular evolution of the genome. Major themes include the origin and maintenance of variation and the causes of evolutionary change. Chapters on paleontology, ecology, behavior, development, and cell and molecular biology are contributed by Jim Valentine, Graham Bell, Mary Jane West Eberhard, Leo Buss, Marc Kirschner, and Marty Kreitman. The book contains an introductory chapter by John Bonner, whose seminal work is honored here. Originally published in 1992. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.


Author : I. Fairweather
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
Page : 412
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 940170998X
Description :


Cell signalling lies at the heart of many biological processes and currently is the focus of intense research interest. In multicellular organisms, it is central to how different types of cell communicate with each other and how they detect and respond to extracellular signals. Intercellular communication is vital to single-celled organisms as well, allowing them to respond to environmental cues and signals. To date, much of the understanding of signalling mechanisms has come from research on specific cell types (eg mouse lymphocyte and cardiomyocyte) or on organisms in which communication systems such as nervous and endocrine systems are well established. This volume therefore aims to 'fill the gap' by concentrating on 'simple organisms' where the elements of those signalling systems first evolved. Many of the groups covered contain important pathogens or parasites, and the potential for manipulating signalling pathways for therapeutic intervention will be highlighted.


Author : Ellsworth C. Dougherty
Publisher :
Release : 1959
Page : 379
Category : Bacteriology
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Mabel Crawley Gilbert
Publisher :
Release : 1943
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Juan J. Tarin
Antonio Cano
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 318
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3642583016
Description :


Reproduction is the origination of new organisms from pre-existing ones. Among more than 35 separated forms of reproduction including several types of gamogony, parthenogenesis, agamogenesis, fission and division, and plas motomy, the bisexual mode of reproduction via fertilization provides genetic variability that allows species to adapt quickly to competitive and constantly changing environments. Several excellent reviews and books have been written in the past to analyse the mechanisms of fertilization in different eukaryotic species. During the last few years, however, renewed attention has been paid to examining the process of oocyte fertilization at the cellular/molecular level not only within a single species/group but also through different phylogenetic lineages. As a result of this effort, knowledge of the molecular pathways used by oocytes and spermatozoa at fertilization has increased, but still many ques tions remain to be answered. Being aware of the necessity of providing an inte grated view of the process of fertilization, this book has been entirely devoted to reviewing the process of oocyte fertilization at the cellular/molecular level in two different and separated groups of eukaryotic organisms: protozoa and metazoan animals. The book is organized into six sections dealing with oocyte fertilization in protozoa, invertebrates, teleost fishes, amphibians, birds and mammals. These sections are followed by a summary/concluding chapter that provides a com parative overview of the process of fertilization in these groups of eukaryotes.


Author : Nelson Çabej
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012
Page : 804
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0124158315
Description :


This is the first and only book, so far, to deal with the causal basis of evolution from an epigenetic view. By revealing the epigenetic "user" of the "genetic toolkit", this book demonstrates the primacy of epigenetic mechanisms and epigenetic information in generating evolutionary novelties. The author convincingly supports his theory with a host of examples from the most varied fields of biology, by emphasizing changes in developmental pathways as the basic source of evolutionary change in metazoans. Original and thought provoking--a radically new theory that overcomes the present difficulties of the theory of evolution Is the first and only theory that uses epigenetic mechanisms and principles for explaining evolution of metazoans Takes an integrative approach and shows a wide range of learning


Author : J. Wolfgang Wägele
Thomas Bartolomaeus
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2014-08-22
Page : 761
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3110372967
Description :


The growing success of molecular methods has challenged traditional views of animal evolution and a large number of alternative hypotheses are hotly debated today. For the deep metazoan phylogeny project, data sets of hitherto unmatched quality and quantity were compiled and analysed with innovative bioinformatics tools. The book begins at the base of the tree of life to discuss the origin of animals and early branches of the phylogenetic tree. The following section presents special data sets gained from mitochondrial genomes and from morphology, with a focus on nervous systems. The final section is dedicated to theoretical aspects of data analysis and new bioinformatics tools. The book closes with a unique general discussion of all hypotheses contained in previous chapters.This work provides the most comprehensiveoverview available of the state of the art in this exciting field of evolutionary research.


Author : I. Fairweather
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004
Page : 412
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9781402017391
Description :


Cell signalling lies at the heart of many biological processes and currently is the focus of intense research interest. In multicellular organisms, it is central to how different types of cell communicate with each other and how they detect and respond to extracellular signals. Intercellular communication is vital to single-celled organisms as well, allowing them to respond to environmental cues and signals. To date, much of the understanding of signalling mechanisms has come from research on specific cell types (eg mouse lymphocyte and cardiomyocyte) or on organisms in which communication systems such as nervous and endocrine systems are well established. This volume therefore aims to 'fill the gap' by concentrating on 'simple organisms' where the elements of those signalling systems first evolved. Many of the groups covered contain important pathogens or parasites, and the potential for manipulating signalling pathways for therapeutic intervention will be highlighted.


Author : Paul J. Brindley
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2009-10-28
Page : 138
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1498712886
Description :


Substantial proportions of the genome of most eukaryotes, including those of metazoan parasites, are comprised of repetitive sequences. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) constitute much of the repetitive component, particularly the interspersed sequences. This volume of nine chapters addresses MGEs that have colonized the genomes of medically importan