Monetary Policies By The European Central Bank And The Federal Reserve System Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Carla Högermann
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2012-08-21
Page : 13
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3656260818
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2011 in the subject Economics - Monetary theory and policy, grade: 1,7, The FOM University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, course: Advanced Business English, language: English, abstract: Since the European Monetary Union was established in 1999 the worlds political attention has been drawn to two main central banks: the European System of Central Banks and the Federal Reserve System. The legal basis of the European System of Central Banks is the Treaty establishing the European Community and the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank. Since it's estblishments the European Central Bank has played a central role in both European and global financial markets. The Federal Reserve System was signed into law by the Federal Reserve Act in 1913. Although the Federal Reserve System was established long before the European System of Central Bank there are several similarities in the ways the central banks operate and control the monetay policy of their nations. But the central banks also differ in certain ways. Whereas the Federal Reserve System was established in order to rearrange the financial system of the United States, the European System of Central Banks started business in order to create a single monetary policy. The following chapters will give a closer look into both systems and their monetary policies.


Author : Daniel Schuck
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2015-07-06
Page : 88
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3668011516
Description :


Master's Thesis from the year 2014 in the subject Economics - International Economic Relations, grade: 1,2, University of Applied Sciences Saarbrücken (Faculty of Business and Economics), language: English, abstract: The Federal Reserve System and the European Central Bank were both forced to implement unconventional monetary policy measures as a response to the severe impact of the global financial crisis and its aftermath. In the first stage of the global financial crisis, the conventional and unconventional monetary policy measures implemented by the Federal Reserve System and the European Central Bank were fairly similar. Both central banks focused on providing the banking sector with liquidity in order to restore interbank lending as it was a key element of ensuring a functional monetary transmission mechanism. However, when the global financial crisis transformed to a sovereign debt crisis in the euro area in 2010, the European Central Bank faced increasing divergence in sovereign spreads and the potential insolvency of euro area Member States. Therefore, its unconventional monetary policy measures focused on credit easing by purchasing sovereign as well as covered bonds in order to improve banks’ and governments’ funding costs. By contrast, the Federal Reserve System massively purchased government bonds and focused on decreasing interest rates and asset prices through the use of quantitative easing.


Author : Cedric Längin
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2011-04
Page : 40
Category :
ISBN 13 : 3640889797
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,0, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, course: Effective Environmental Scanning, language: English, abstract: Since the foundation of the European currency union in 1998, the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve System represent the most influential two central banks in the world. In this comparison their general structure, tasks and objectives and monetary policy instruments are contrasted. The institutions and bodies of the banks are explained in the second chapter, to see the structural differences. While the ECB defined price stability as its primary objective, the Fed has several equal objectives. These objectives and further tasks of the central banks are described in the third chapter. To steer and implement their objectives and tasks, the central banks have monetary policy instruments at disposal, whereas open market operations and the minimum reserve system play a key role. These instruments are explained in chapter 4 in general and their arrangement and implementation at the example of the ECB. Then the Feds corresponding instruments are contrasted with the ECB, because in my opinion the ECB has a role model position, in this context. Then follows an elaboration of the instruments standing facilities and discount policy. These instruments are examined in two separate subchapters, due to the fact that the implementation of these instruments is only made by the ECB or the Fed. In the last part I examined the reactions of the ECB and the Fed to compensate the risks of the current financial crisis. The attention is directed to the evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of the implemented monetary policy instruments. At the end the results are summarized.


Author : Cedric Längin
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2011-04
Page : 40
Category :
ISBN 13 : 3640889797
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,0, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, course: Effective Environmental Scanning, language: English, abstract: Since the foundation of the European currency union in 1998, the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve System represent the most influential two central banks in the world. In this comparison their general structure, tasks and objectives and monetary policy instruments are contrasted. The institutions and bodies of the banks are explained in the second chapter, to see the structural differences. While the ECB defined price stability as its primary objective, the Fed has several equal objectives. These objectives and further tasks of the central banks are described in the third chapter. To steer and implement their objectives and tasks, the central banks have monetary policy instruments at disposal, whereas open market operations and the minimum reserve system play a key role. These instruments are explained in chapter 4 in general and their arrangement and implementation at the example of the ECB. Then the Feds corresponding instruments are contrasted with the ECB, because in my opinion the ECB has a role model position, in this context. Then follows an elaboration of the instruments standing facilities and discount policy. These instruments are examined in two separate subchapters, due to the fact that the implementation of these instruments is only made by the ECB or the Fed. In the last part I examined the reactions of the ECB and the Fed to compensate the risks of the current financial crisis. The attention is directed to the evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of the implemented monetary policy instruments. At the end the results are summarized.


Author : Cedric Längin
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2011-04-11
Page : 16
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3640890175
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,0, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, course: Effective Environmental Scanning, language: English, abstract: Since the foundation of the European currency union in 1998, the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve System represent the most influential two central banks in the world. In this comparison their general structure, tasks and objectives and monetary policy instruments are contrasted. The institutions and bodies of the banks are explained in the second chapter, to see the structural differences. While the ECB defined price stability as its primary objective, the Fed has several equal objectives. These objectives and further tasks of the central banks are described in the third chapter. To steer and implement their objectives and tasks, the central banks have monetary policy instruments at disposal, whereas open market operations and the minimum reserve system play a key role. These instruments are explained in chapter 4 in general and their arrangement and implementation at the example of the ECB. Then the Feds corresponding instruments are contrasted with the ECB, because in my opinion the ECB has a role model position, in this context. Then follows an elaboration of the instruments standing facilities and discount policy. These instruments are examined in two separate subchapters, due to the fact that the implementation of these instruments is only made by the ECB or the Fed. In the last part I examined the reactions of the ECB and the Fed to compensate the risks of the current financial crisis. The attention is directed to the evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of the implemented monetary policy instruments. At the end the results are summarized.


Author : Ulrich Bindseil
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2014-09
Page : 320
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0198716907
Description :


An introduction to the way that central banks implement monetary policy through market operations. It explains monetary policy operations in normal times, reviews the basic mechanics of financial crises, and explains what central banks need to do to fulfil their monetary policy and financial stability mandates when markets and banks are impaired.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 2004
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Kenneth H. F. Dyson
Kevin Featherstone
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 1999
Page : 859
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 019829638X
Description :


Named Outstanding Academic Book by ChoiceThe Road to Maastricht provides a comprehensive and definitive account of how Europe signed up to Economic and Monetary Union. The book examines the dynamics of the treaty negotiations, focusing of the beliefs, motives, strategies and use of institutions by the leading European Union players.


Author : Evan A. Schnidman
William D. MacMillan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-04-29
Page : 198
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1137432586
Description :


Central banks have a profound impact on financial markets, and investors struggle to keep informed about their complex policy decisions. Technological and financial developments have transformed the US Federal Reserve Bank from a financial black box into a vocal, increasingly transparent institution—and the result is such a wealth of textual data that clues to future policy decisions may be lost among the details. This book presents a solution to this problem by keeping track of those details. Schnidman and MacMillan demonstrate how the latest advances in automated text analysis, combined with the precision of domain expertise, are the keys to understanding how central banks move markets with their words. The authors outline a method to not only examine every piece of every central bank communication, but to do it in a way that is completely comprehensive and unbiased while quickly yielding hard, quantitative data that can be put to work in modern financial models.


Author : Ulrich Bindseil
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2004-12-02
Page : 276
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0199274541
Description :


The first of its kind, this book is entirely dedicated to the implementation of monetary policy. Monetary policy implementation has gone through tremendous changes over the last twenty years, which have witnessed the quiet end of 'reserve position doctrine' and the return of an explicit focus on short-term interest rates.Enthusiastically supported by Keynes and later by the monetarist school, reserve position doctrine was developed mainly by US central bankers and academics during the early 1920s, and at least in the US became the unchallenged dogma of monetary policy implementation for sixty years. The return of interest rate targeting also corresponds largely to the restoration of central banking principles established in the late 19th century.Providing a simple theory of monetary policy implementation, Bindseil goes on to explain the role of the three main instruments (open market operations, standing facilities, and reserve requirements) and reviews their use in the twentieth century. In closing, he summarizes current views on efficient monetary policy implementation.


Author : Korbinian Stinglhamer
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2017-10-11
Page : 19
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3668546169
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2016 in the subject Economics - Finance, grade: 1,0, University of Wisconsin-Madison (Economics), course: The Financial System, language: English, abstract: The paper analyzes the unconventional monetary policies that were implemented by the Federal Reserve Bank, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank, and the Bank of Japan during their post-crisis transitions. Next, potential challenges involved in the exit will be analyzed. During the financial crisis many central banks in the world implemented “unconventional monetary policy” measures, such as balance-sheet policies, forward guidance, and negative interest rates. Once the financial system stabilizes, the difficult process of returning back to conventional monetary policy begins. For this reason, this paper analyzes the unconventional monetary policies during post-crisis transitions and potential challenges involved in the exit. The analysis suggests that a transition from unconventional monetary policies should be accomplished smoothly, without exceeding inflation, harming economic recovery, or destabilizing financial markets. Furthermore, the analysis suggests to make use of forward guidance in order to prepare the market for the exit and to increase its potential speed. However, the optimal exiting policy depends largely on present and future economic conditions of the respective currency region. In order to analyze these conditions and determine the ideal exiting strategy for each central bank, further investigations need to be done.


Author : Tobias Adrian
Mr.Douglas Laxton
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2018-04-13
Page : 296
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1484344480
Description :


Inflation-forecast targeting is state of the art for monetary policy. This book explores first principles, including managing short-term policy trade-offs. The book also outlines efficient operational procedures and reviews the experiences of Canada, the Czech Republic, and India. The analysis highlights the need for assertive policies and maximum transparency.


Author : David G. Mayes
Pierre L. Siklos
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-02-15
Page : 656
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0190626216
Description :


The economic influence of central banks has received ever more attention given their centrality during the financial crises that led to the Great Recession, strains in the European Union, and the challenges to the Euro. The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Central Banking reflects the state of the art in the theory and practice and covers a wide range of topics that will provide insight to students, scholars, and practitioners. As an up to date reference of the current and potential challenges faced by central banks in the conduct of monetary policy and in the search for the maintenance of financial system stability, this Oxford Handbook covers a wide range of essential issues. The first section provides insights into central bank governance, the differing degrees of central bank independence, and the internal dynamics of their decision making. The next section focuses on questions of whether central banks can ameliorate fiscal burdens, various strategies to affect monetary policy, and how the global financial crisis affected the relationship between the traditional focus on inflation targeting and unconventional policy instruments such as quantitative easing (QE), foreign exchange market interventions, negative interest rates, and forward guidance. The next two sections turn to central bank communications and management of expectations and then mechanisms of policy transmission. The fifth part explores the challenges of recent developments in the economy and debates about the roles central banks should play, focusing on micro- and macro-prudential arguments. The implications of recent developments for policy modeling are covered in the last section. The breadth and depth enhances understanding of the challenges and opportunities facing central banks.


Author : Zvi Eckstein
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 412
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3642767745
Description :


This volume is a collection of papers which were presented and discussed at a conference on "Aspects of Central Bank Policy Making" which took place in January 1990 at the Bank of Israel and Tel Aviv University. The conference marked the tenth anniversary of the passing of David Horowitz who was the first governor of the Bank of Israel. The conference was sponsored by the Bank of Israel and the David Horowitz Institute for the Research of Developing Countries at Tel Aviv University. Eitan Berglas, Zvi Eckstein and Mordechai Fraenkel served as organizing committee. The volume has three parts. The first part deals with the rules and the constraints that are fundamental for central bank policy making. It starts with a critical review of 75 years of monetary policy of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, followed by several studies directed at the issues concerning the establishment of a European central bank. The second part deals with the insurance, regulation and safety of commercial banks. The last part contains analysis of monetary policies in Germany and Israel. Part of the research included in this volume is the result of a two years research project on "Central Bank Policies, Disinflation and the Macroeconomy" conducted at the David Horowitz Institute. The contributors to this project were: the Bundesbank, the Bank of England, the Bank of Italy, the Bank of Israel, the Bank for International Settlements and the Bank of the Netherlands.


Author : Kelly H. Chang
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2003-08-18
Page :
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9781139440547
Description :


This book examines monetary policy by focusing on how the President and the Senate influence monetary policy by appointing Federal Reserve members. It attempts to answer three questions about the appointment process and its effects. First, do politicians influence monetary policy through Federal Reserve appointments? Second, who influences the process - the President alone or both the President and the Senate? Third, what explains the structure of the Federal Reserve appointment process? The test models show that the President alone, both the President and Senate, or neither, may influence monetary policy with Federal Reserve appointments. The structure of the process reflects political battles between the Democrats and Republicans regarding the centralization of authority to set monetary policy within the Federal Reserve System. The study extends the analysis to the European Central Bank and shows that the Federal Reserve process is more representative of society than the European Central Bank process.


Author : Barbara Dutzler
Publisher : Springer Verlag
Release : 2003
Page : 293
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 :
Description :


With the communitarisation of monetary policy and the establishment of an European Central Bank (ECB), the idea of insulating a central bank from the political process was realised to a degree yet undreamed of. The result, the asymmetric construction of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), makes it difficult to democratically legitimize the exercise of power by the autonomous actor ECB. In this regard, EMU can be conceived as a parable for the respective difficulties of the European Union. As a still rare example for a combination of juridical and economic point of view, this volume makes this challenge subject of discussion. By means of comparison with the American central banking system, the book probes the ECB's institutional design, attempts to define the ECB's status in EMU, and looks for ways towards a more democratically legitimated economic and monetary policy.


Author : Jürgen von Hagen
Christopher J. Waller
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
Page : 328
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1475763905
Description :


Monetary union has dawned in Europe. Now that the common currency is a reality, questions concerning the practical conduct of monetary policy in the European Monetary Union (EMU) are moving to the forefront of the policy debate. Among these, one of the most critical is how the new monetary union will cope with the large heterogeneity of its member economies. Given the large differences in economic and financial structures among the EMU member states, monetary policy is likely to affect different member economies in different ways. Regional Aspects of Monetary Policy in Europe collects the proceedings of an international conference held at the Center for European Integration Studies of the University of Bonn, dedicated to this issue. The contributions to this conference fall into two parts. The first part consists of empirical and theoretical studies of the regional effects of monetary policy in heterogeneous monetary unions. The second part consists of papers analyzing the political economy of monetary policy in a monetary union of heterogeneous regions or member states. The papers all support the conclusion that regional differences in the responses to a common monetary policy will make European monetary policy especially difficult in the years to come. Such differences arise from a variety of sources, and they cannot be expected to be mere teething troubles that will disappear after a while. Even if they were ignored in the run-up to the EMU, Europe's central bankers and economic policy makers will have to learn how to cope with such differences in the future.


Author : Livio Stracca
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-04-17
Page : 136
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1351583352
Description :


This book offers a comprehensive analysis of central banks, and aims to demystify them for the general public, which is the only way to have a rational debate about them and ultimately to make them truly accountable. The book originates from the author’s graduate lectures on Central Banking at the University of Frankfurt J.W. Goethe. It contains an overview of all the key questions surrounding central banks and their role in the economy. It leads the reader from the more established concepts (including monetary theory and historical experience), necessary to have a good grasp of modern central banking, to the more open and problematic questions, which are being debated within academic and financial market circles. This structure enables readers without specific knowledge of central banks or monetary economics to understand the current challenges. The book has three defining characteristics, which set it apart from competing titles: first, it is pitched at the general public and uses simple and entertaining language. Second, it is rooted in, and makes frequent reference to, recent academic research, based on content for a graduate level course. Third, the author thinks 'out of the box' in order to describe the possible evolution of central banks (including the prospect of their disappearance), and not only the status quo.


Author : Curzio Giannini
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2011
Page : 298
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0857932144
Description :


Curzio had one of the most fertile and original minds ever to be deployed on questions relating, first, to the interactions between Central Banks, private sector financial intermediaries and the government, and second to the working of the international monetary system in general, and to the role of the IMF specifically within that. His approach has been to apply a theory of history , which provides a beautifully written and illuminating book, much easier and nicer to read and more rounded than the limited mathematical models that have so monopolised academia in recent decades. From the foreword by Charles A.E. Goodhart Curzio Giannini s history of the evolution of central banks illustrates how the most relevant institutional developments have taken place at times of widespread confidence crises and in response to deflationary pressures. The eminent and highly-renowned author provides an analytical perspective to study the evolution of central banking as an endogenous response to crisis and to the ever increasing needs of economic growth. The key argument of the analysis is that crucial innovations in the payment technology (from the invention of coinage to the development of electronic money) could not have taken place without an institution i.e. the central bank - that could preserve confidence in the instruments used as money. According to Curzio Giannini s neo-institutionalist methodological approach, social institutions are, in fact, essential in the coordination of individual decisions as they minimize transaction costs, overcome information asymmetries and deal with incomplete contracts. This enlightening and revealing historical theory perspective on central banking will prove a thought-provoking read for academic and institutional economists, economic historians, and economic policymakers involved in the task of crafting a new institutional arrangement for central banking in the globalized economy.


Author : International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2015-04-08
Page : 30
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1475547285
Description :


As the Federal Reserve’s statutory objectives are defined as specific goals for the U.S. economy—to pursue maximum sustainable employment and price stability—and its policy decisions are targeted to achieve these dual objectives, there might seem to be little need for its policymakers to pay attention to developments outside the United States. But such an inference would be incorrect: the state of the U.S. economy is significantly affected by the state of the world economy, and of course, actions taken by the Federal Reserve influence economic conditions abroad, which in turn spill back on the evolution of the U.S. economy and therefore must be taken into account in the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy choices. This Per Jacobsson Lecture first reviews the effect of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policies on the rest of the global economy, particularly emerging market economies. It then addresses prospective outcomes and possible risks associated with the normalization of the Federal Reserve’s policies. Finally, it discusses the Federal Reserve’s responsibilities in the world economy.