Operation Ajax Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Mike de Seve
Publisher : Verso Books
Release : 2020-08-18
Page : 248
Category : Comics & Graphic Novels
ISBN 13 : 1781689253
Description :


Graphic true-life spy thriller about the CIA mission that overthrew Iran’s democracy The year is 1953. As the value of oil skyrockets, global power brokers begin to take interest in the political regimes of the Middle East. British agents have controlled Iranian oil exports for a generation, but the Shah’s hold on peace is shaky as a charismatic leader enters the scene. Mohammed Mossadegh’s calls to overthrow the elites resonates among the people, and as rumors circulate of an impending revolt, American, British and Persian agents hatch plans of overthrow. Deals are made behind closed doors. Every actor has a stake. Iran’s oil will flow, by any means necessary. Operation Ajax is the story of the CIA coup that removed the democratically elected Mossadegh and reinstated the monarchy. Introduced by New York Times–bestselling author of All the Shah’s Men, Stephen Kinzer, Operation Ajax is a thrilling tale of real-life intrigue.


Author : U. S. Military
Department of Defense (DoD)
Publisher :
Release : 2017-02-26
Page : 84
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781520702339
Description :


This monograph analyzes Operation Ajax as a historical case study of the inherent challenges of estimative intelligence and analyst-policymaker tensions. In 1953, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) led a coup that overthrew Iran's elected prime minister, Dr. Mohammed Mossadeq. The coup, titled Operation Ajax, coincided with the early Cold War years and the development of the nascent interagency intelligence community. Historians frequently study Operation Ajax as an example of the US government's early attempts to employ covert action as a foreign policy tool. A less studied aspect of the coup is the intelligence estimates that informed and influenced the Truman and Eisenhower administrations' policy decisions during the Anglo-Iranian Oil Crisis. A careful analysis of the Iranian estimates produced by the Office of National Estimates (ONE) between 1950-1953 reveals that ONE effectively informed and influenced the Truman administration, but that influence was lost during the Eisenhower administration. Structural and organizational impediments within the CIA, coupled with flawed processes and procedures introduced by the Dulles brothers, mitigated efforts by leading CIA analysts to coordinate intelligence analysis, remove bias, and accurately inform and influence policymakers. Unlike the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Iranian Revolution, and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Operation Ajax is not commonly referred to as an example of an intelligence failure, largely because it did not involve strategic surprise.4 Historians continue to debate the merits of the operation and whether it was a clandestine success or failure. As Richard Russell argued in Sharpening Strategic Intelligence, "the CIA's covert action that returned the Shah of Iran to power is still heralded as a high water mark for the agency's myth of covert action capabilities." Others, such as historian Shiva Balaghi, have referred to the coup as a representation of the "height of US imperial folly." Operation Ajax is controversial because of its unintended consequences that call into question the effectiveness, utility, and morality of the use of covert action. As such, the United States' role in the coup has been central to the historical narrative that has framed relations between the two countries since the Iranian Revolution in 1978. Kermit Roosevelt, the lead CIA operative in charge of Operation Ajax, published his personal memoir of the coup in August 1979. The book was withdrawn from publication after only 400 copies were published, and then re-released after the conclusion of the Iranian hostage crisis in 1981. Roosevelt's Countercoup was the first open-source CIA history of the coup that described US involvement in detail. Subsequently, the Iranian hostage crisis began in November of 1979, indicating that the memoire may have fueled the narrative behind the student protests. The ongoing debate surrounding the coup has heightened in significance in 2015 as the United States is engaging Iran on a wide variety of issues, to include Iran's nuclear program, the lifting of economic sanctions, and potential cooperation between the two countries in the effort to combat the growing threat posed by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).


Author : Stephen Edward Jackson
Publisher :
Release : 2008
Page : 220
Category : Anglo-Iranian Oil Dispute, 1951-1954
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Stephen Kinzer
Publisher : Wiley
Release : 2004-08-12
Page : 280
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 9780471678786
Description :


This is the first full-length account of the CIA's coup d'etat in Iran in 1953—a covert operation whose consequences are still with us today. Written by a noted New York Times journalist, this book is based on documents about the coup (including some lengthy internal CIA reports) that have now been declassified. Stephen Kinzer's compelling narrative is at once a vital piece of history, a cautionary tale, and a real-life espionage thriller.


Cia

Author : Quelle Wikipedia
Publisher : University-Press.org
Release : 2013-09
Page : 92
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781230659084
Description :


Dieser Inhalt ist eine Zusammensetzung von Artikeln aus der frei verfugbaren Wikipedia-Enzyklopadie. Seiten: 90. Kapitel: Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Operation Ajax, Black Site, Gladio, Operation PBSUCCESS, Azorian-Projekt, Khaled al-Masri, Invasion in der Schweinebucht, MKULTRA, Contra-Krieg, Waterboarding, Kryptos, Office of the Coordinator of Information, Untersuchungsausschuss Freiheitlicher Juristen, Operation Gold, Plame-Affare, Stephen Kappes, Operation Phoenix, CIA-Aktivitaten in Chile, Special Activities Division, Rosenholz-Dateien, Operation Silver, Operation Mongoose, Abu Omar, Camp King, Glaubhafte Abstreitbarkeit, Intellipedia, John Mulholland, David Atlee Phillips, Operation MERLIN, Operation Artischocke, Chief of Station, Demagnetize, Tom Braden, Camp Peary, Long Cheng, National Intelligence Resources Board, Alliance Base, Eugene Hasenfus, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Hughes Mining Barge, Kubark-Manual, Operation Cyclone, CIA Memorial Wall, Special Group Augmented, Distinguished Intelligence Medal, Operation CHAOS, Alec Station, Center for the Study of Intelligence. Auszug: Black Sites bezeichnet im Sprachgebrauch des US-Militars geheime Gefangnisse, die ausserhalb der USA betrieben werden und offiziell nicht existieren. Der Begriff wurde von den US-Geheimdiensten und spater nach dem offentlichen Bekanntwerden dieser Einrichtungen auch in der Berichterstattung ubernommen. Die USA betrieben auf Diego Garcia ein geheimes Gefangnis, bis dessen Existenz 2003 offenkundig wurde. Amnesty International (ai) warf den USA 2002 vor, neben bekannten, aber rechtlich bedenklichen Einrichtungen wie dem Gefangenenlager Guantanamo, ein weltweites Netz von geheimen Gefangnissen und Lagern zu betreiben, in denen Personen zum Teil rechtswidrig festgehalten und behandelt werden. Erst 2006 bestatigte der damalige US-Prasident George W. Bush indirekt, dass ein solches Netzwerk existiere. Internationale Organisationen wie die..


Author : Quelle Wikipedia
Publisher : University-Press.org
Release : 2013-09
Page : 24
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9781230661001
Description :


Dieser Inhalt ist eine Zusammensetzung von Artikeln aus der frei verfugbaren Wikipedia-Enzyklopadie. Seiten: 23. Kapitel: Operation Ajax, Gladio, Operation Gold, UKUSA, Operation Silver, Operation STOCKADE, Trent Park, Farm Hall, Cambridge Five, Political Warfare Executive. Auszug: Gladio (ital., von lat. Schwert"), eigentlich Stay-behind-Organisation, war eine paramilitarische Geheimorganisation der NATO, der CIA und des britischen MI6 wahrend des Kalten Krieges. Die Gladio-Mitglieder sollten nach einer sowjetischen Invasion Westeuropas Guerillaoperationen und Sabotage durchfuhren. Die Organisation existierte von etwa 1950 bis mindestens 1990 und arbeitete in Westeuropa, in Griechenland und in der Turkei. Die Organisation wird mit Terrorakten und Morden in mehreren europaischen Landern in Verbindung gebracht. Die Europaische Union verurteilte 1990 das Vorgehen der beteiligten Geheimdienste und forderte die Mitgliedsstaaten zur Aufklarung auf. In Belgien, Italien und dem Nicht-EU-Land Schweiz wurden parlamentarische Untersuchungskommissionen dazu eingesetzt. Abzeichen des italienischen Gladio-Zweigs; der lateinische Schriftzug lautet ubersetzt: Durch Schweigen bewahre ich die Freiheit Ab Anfang der 1950er Jahre wurden besonders in Italien, aber auch in fast allen anderen westeuropaischen Landern Agenten ausgebildet, die im Fall einer Besetzung des jeweiligen Landes durch Truppen des Warschauer Pakts Guerillaoperationen und Sabotage durchfuhren sollten (so genannte Stay-Behind-Operationen). Zu diesem Zweck wurden europaweit geheime, illegale Waffendepots angelegt. Als Vorbild diente das Special Operations Executive, eine britische Spezialeinheit, die wahrend des Zweiten Weltkrieges selbst verdeckte Operationen hinter feindlichen Linien ausfuhrte und Widerstandsgruppen wie die Resistance unterstutzte und ausbildete. Die Mitglieder der so gebildeten Geheimarmeen rekrutierten sich unter anderem aus militarischen Spezialeinheiten, ...


Author : Timothy V. Dugan
Publisher : McFarland
Release : 2018-02-22
Page : 430
Category : Literary Criticism
ISBN 13 : 1476663963
Description :


Ajax, the archetypal Greek warrior, has over the years been trivialized as a peripheral character in the classics through Hollywood representations, and by the use of his name on household cleaning products. Examining a broad range of sources--from film, art and literature to advertising and sports--this study of the "Bulwark of the Achaeans" and his mythological image redefines his presence in Western culture, revealing him as the predominant voice in The Iliad and in myriad works across the classical canon.


Author : Stephen Kinzer
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2003
Page : 258
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 047018549X
Description :


A new edition of the best-selling study of the Iran-U.S. conflict traces the events leading to the 1953 coup in Iran, noting the reasons behind the U.S.'s covert operations under the joint authority of Eisenhower and Churchill, the orchestrations of prime minister Mossadegh and CIA officer Kermit Roosevelt, the coup's ongoing consequences, and future conflict. Original.


Author : Randall M. Hanes
Publisher :
Release : 1958
Page : 73
Category : Antiaircraft missiles
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Ervand Abrahamian
Publisher : The New Press
Release : 2013-11-05
Page : 128
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 1595588620
Description :


An “absorbing” account of the CIA’s 1953 coup in Iran—essential reading for anyone concerned about Iran’s role in the world today (Harper’s Magazine). In August 1953, the Central Intelligence Agency orchestrated the swift overthrow of Iran’s democratically elected leader and installed Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in his place. When the 1979 Iranian Revolution deposed the shah and replaced his puppet government with a radical Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the shift reverberated throughout the Middle East and the world, casting a long, dark shadow over United States-Iran relations that extends to the present day. In this authoritative new history of the coup and its aftermath, noted Iran scholar Ervand Abrahamian uncovers little-known documents that challenge conventional interpretations and sheds new light on how the American role in the coup influenced diplomatic relations between the two countries, past and present. Drawing from the hitherto closed archives of British Petroleum, the Foreign Office, and the US State Department, as well as from Iranian memoirs and published interviews, Abrahamian’s riveting account of this key historical event will change America’s understanding of a crucial turning point in modern United States-Iranian relations. A Choice Outstanding Academic Title “Not only is this book important because of its presentation of history. It is also important because it might be predicting the future.” —Counterpunch “Subtle, lucid, and well-proportioned.” —The Spectator “A valuable corrective to previous work and an important contribution to Iranian history.” —American Historical Review


Author : Randall Fowler
Publisher : U of Nebraska Press
Release : 2018-05
Page : 272
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 1612349978
Description :


Given on January 5, 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine Address forever changed America’s relationship with the Middle East. In the aftermath of the Suez Crisis, President Dwight D. Eisenhower boldly declared that the United States would henceforth serve as the region’s “protector of freedom” against Communist aggression. Eighteen months later the president invoked the Eisenhower Doctrine, landing troops in Lebanon and setting an enduring precedent for U.S. intervention in the Middle East. How did Eisenhower justify this intervention to an American public wary of foreign entanglements? Why did he boldly issue the doctrine that bears his name? And, most important, how has Eisenhower’s rhetoric continued to influence American policy and perception of the Middle East? Randall Fowler answers these questions and more in More Than a Doctrine. With the expansion of America’s global influence and the executive branch’s power, presidential rhetoric has become an increasingly important tool in U.S. foreign policy—nowhere more so than in the Middle East. By examining Eisenhower’s rhetoric, More Than a Doctrine explores how the argumentative origins of the Eisenhower Doctrine Address continue to impact us today.


Author : Seid M. Zekavat
Publisher : Xlibris Corporation
Release : 2002-01-01
Page : 244
Category : Biography & Autobiography
ISBN 13 : 1401029329
Description :


Terms of Endurance is an honest memoir, which illuminates Iranian and Islamic traditions through heartwarming, suspenseful, and at times painful stories. The author has collected episodes from his life, from a very tender age through adolescence and beyond. The book’s theme is the author´s search for identity in a deeply rooted religious family. Terms of Endurance explores the life of the author’s father, a renowned Ayatollah who practiced polygamy, and his mother´s fortitude while living in poverty and raising eight children. His first realization of who he was comes at the age of four when he finds himself in a butcher´s barn on a hot summer night with his mother and six brothers and a sister in the company of a herd of sheep to be slaughtered at dawn the next day. In his absence, his father´s second wife had kicked them out of the house. His mother took refuge with her children in the neighboring butcher’s barn. Disheartening stories about the fate of the author’s sisters before and after their marriages reveal the discrimination against women both in the home and in the prevailing traditional society at large. He fails the fifth grade twice because of poor math and composition and decides to discontinue schooling after barely finishing sixth grade. At fourteen he works at a low-paid manual craft to save money to fund his secret plan to run away from home to a distant oil-production province, hoping to redeem himself. The moving story of hunger, defeat, and disappointment and the agony of a heartbroken mother who had lost her young son take the reader on an emotional trip through the depths of despair. When the author discovers that poor vision is the cause of his failure, he resumes his education and takes a three-day national exam covering 7th, 8th, and 9th grades. As the nation´s awareness of the seeds of modern education flourished, he enters the university and witnesses the rise of both communism and the non-communist national uprising against the Shah, which forced the monarch to flee the country. Fearing a possible communist take-over in Iran, the United States’ covert plan Operation Ajax overthrew the new national, non-communist government and restored the Shah to the throne. A recent law school graduate, the author is brutally disappointed and determines to leave the country. While he waits for documents and a passport in Tehran, poverty compels him to live in the narrow, low-ceilinged tomb of a famous Ayatollah. To make his ghastly situation more bearable, he opens a dialogue with the Ayatollah’s spirit. The engaging story of the relationship with the spirit of the godly man shows how the author gains the confidence to undertake a seemingly impossible journey. Without money he makes his way on Japanese tankers for thirty-two days over the Indian and Pacific Oceans to Japan and then to California. The author´s accounts of his experience on the tankers and of his brief stay in Japan show a young man exposed for the first time to the ways of worlds he never knew existed. On US soil his greatest challenge was to survive and adapt to a new way of living in a land of plenty where a stranger can die of starvation if he does not earn his way. His reception by Americans, some admirable, some despicable, is told in stories that sweep the reader along the suspenseful path to eventual success. The reader of Terms of Endurance will be thrilled, taught, and entertained. From first page to last, the book shows endurance and faith overcoming insurmountable odds and making reality of an apparently unattainable dream.


Author : Christopher J. Petherick
Publisher :
Release : 2007-01-01
Page : 154
Category : Great Britain
ISBN 13 : 9780978573324
Description :


Few Americans today have any idea why Iran and America seem forever to be at loggerheads or even why Iran held 52 American hostages for 444 days in Tehran after the overthrow of the shah, America's best ally in the region. Iranians remember well the 1953 CIA-orchestrated coup that forcibly removed democratically elected Prime Minster Mohammad Mossadeq, a man dedicated to loosening the grip the Western oil companies had over Iran and her oil. Now, for the first time, is the story of the coup d'etat that placed the dreaded Shah of Iran in power as told by former CIA operative Donald Wilber, a deep cover CIA asset in Iran at the time. Wilber lays out the whole plan--every dirty trick and rotten scheme--which so successfully removed Mossadeq, by all accounts a good nationalist and a wise leader. CIA In Iran reveals in shocking detail a once-top-secret report by a CIA field agent working in Iran. The report, which reads like a detective novel, shows how U.S. and British operatives employed every dirty trick at their disposal, including bribery, murder and terrorism, to eliminate a government they could not control and replace it with one they thought they could. It is the true story of how, in 1953, American agents destroyed the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammad Mossadeq, and maneuvered the infamous "Shah of Iran," Reza Pahlavi, into power. The installation of the Shah led to Pahlavi's own ouster (he was feared by the majority of Iranians) and the creation of today's Iranian Islamic Republic. Following the overthrow in Iran, U.S. intelligence repeatedly employed the same formula in future coup attempts, including the disastrous Bay of Pigs, but could never quite replicate its success. To this day, historians and journalists contend the CIA is still utilizing what agents learned in Tehran in 1953. Likewise, you can believe that foreign governments are all more wary of U.S. scheming, thanks to the release of this report.Today, the rift between the United States and Iran, short of war, could not be wider.


Author : Wallace B. McClure
Scott Glavich
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-06-30
Page : 344
Category : Computers
ISBN 13 : 0470192445
Description :


Written by a high-power team of Microsoft MVPs, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the ASP.NET AJAX features After a quick overview of the architecture and features of ASP.NET 2.0 AJAX, coverage then goes on to show developers how to build richer, more responsive dynamic Web sites and Web applications Dives into such topics as ASP.NET 2.0 AJAX user interface design issues, JavaScript enhancements with AJAX, how to use the UpdatePanel for implementing server-side controls, and XML scripting in AJAX Also offers an outline of the ASP.NET 2.0 AJAXControl Toolkit, and discusses implementing drag and drop functions, databinding, debugging and security, ASP.NET services, and bridging and gadgets The companion Web site provides readers with a rich set of code examples


Author : Richard Trahair
Publisher : Enigma Books
Release : 2012-01-10
Page : 612
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 1936274264
Description :


The only comprehensive and up-to-date book of its kind with the latest information.


Author : Bruce Riedel
Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
Release : 2019-10-29
Page : 144
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 0815737351
Description :


What wasn’t learned from a U.S. intervention that succeeded In July 1958, U.S. Marines stormed the beach in Beirut, Lebanon, ready for combat. They were greeted by vendors and sunbathers. Fortunately, the rest of their mission—helping to end Lebanon’s first civil war—went nearly as smoothly and successfully, thanks in large part to the skillful work of American diplomats who helped arrange a compromise solution. Future American interventions in the region would not work out quite as well. Bruce Riedel’s new book tells the now-forgotten story (forgotten, that is, in the United States) of the first U.S. combat operation in the Middle East. President Eisenhower sent the Marines in the wake of a bloody coup in Iraq, a seismic event that altered politics not only of that country but eventually of the entire region. Eisenhower feared that the coup, along with other conspiracies and events that seemed mysterious back in Washington, threatened American interests in the Middle East. His action, and those of others, were driven in large part by a cast of fascinating characters whose espionage and covert actions could be grist for a movie. Although Eisenhower’s intervention in Lebanon was unique, certainly in its relatively benign outcome, it does hold important lessons for today’s policymakers as they seek to deal with the always unexpected challenges in the Middle East. Veteran analyst Bruce Reidel describes the scene as it emerged six decades ago, and he suggests that some of the lessons learned then are still valid today. A key lesson? Not to rush to judgment when surprised by the unexpected. And don't assume the worst.


Author : Daniel Northrup Finucane
Publisher :
Release : 2014
Page : 406
Category : Ethics
ISBN 13 :
Description :


ABSTRACT


Author : Kambiz Marashi
Publisher :
Release : 2013
Page : 36
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9783656437703
Description :


Research Paper from the year 2013 in the subject History - World History - Modern History, printed single-sided, grade: -, -, language: English, abstract: In retrospect, the United States-led covert operation in Iran has emerged as a critical current issue in postwar world history. The Coup d'etat in the 1953 overthrow of the Iranian government was marked as a great success in the Intelligence community. The supposedly communist-leaning regime of Prime Minster Mohammad Mossadeq was overthrown, subsequently restoring shah to power. From the onset of the Cold War, U.S. military and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) intervened, to prop up or to establish regimes friendly to the United States regardless of their democratic status. The once acclaimed success of the operation, left a legacy of anti-Americanism that continues to diminish our foreign policy in the Middle East and set the motion for all later Middle Eastern terrorism. In August of 1953, the CIA conducted a covert operation (Operation Ajax) to overthrow the government in Iran. The democratically elected Prime Minster Muhammad Mossadeq was immensely popular amongst Iranians, advocating for democracy and national sovereignty. In 1951, Prime Minster Mossadeq nationalized Iran's petroleum industry. The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) had exclusive rights to extract and sell Iranian oil. AIOC, later known as British Petroleum, based in England and mainly owned by the British government, was threatened by its loss of revenue and political influence.


Author : Pamela Savage
Publisher : Emereo Publishing
Release : 2014-03-16
Page : 30
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9781488530029
Description :


Ajax' (also 'AJAX';; an abbreviation for 'Asynchronous JavaScript and XML') is a cluster of interrelated net creation methods applied on the client-side to produce asynchronous net applications. With Ajax, net applications may dispatch information to, and get back information as of, a net Serverserver asynchronously (in the background) short of interfering with the exhibit and conduct of the existent page. Data may be recovered utilizing the XMLHttpRequest object. Despite the designation, the employ of XML is not needed (JavaScript Object NotationJSON is frequently applied in lieu. There has never been a AJAX Guide like this. It contains 52 answers, much more than you can imagine; comprehensive answers and extensive details and references, with insights that have never before been offered in print. Get the information you need--fast! This all-embracing guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces what you want to know about AJAX. A quick look inside of some of the subjects covered: Web application framework - Ajax, AJAX - Drawbacks, List of Ajax frameworks - Java, AJAJ - Similarities with AJAX, Google Code - Ajax APIs, ColdBox Platform - Ajax support, Microsoft Public License - ASP.Net AJAX Control Toolkit, AJAX - History, List of Ajax frameworks - Scala, Ajax (programming) History, List of Ajax frameworks - Python, Ajax (programming) Example, JavaServer Faces - Ajax-enabled components and frameworks, AJAX Service Bus, List of JavaScript libraries - Pure Javascript/AJAX, List of Ajax frameworks - JavaScript, List of Ajax frameworks - Perl, Ajax (programming) Technologies, ASP.NET AJAX - Clients supporting Ajax, List of Ajax frameworks - C++, False flag - Operation Ajax, Ajax (programming) Drawbacks, Spam in blogs - AJAX, JSON - Use in Ajax, Comet (programming) - Ajax with long polling, JavaServer Faces - JSF and Ajax, Web Atoms - Simple AJAX (AtomPromise), and much more...


Author : Donald Newton Wilber
Publisher : Spokesman Books
Release : 2006
Page : 111
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 9780851247182
Description :


"In 1953, a coup d'etat in Iran was carefully organised by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States together with the British Secret Intelligence Service. The CIA Director 'approved a budget of $1 million which could be used by the Tehran Station in any way that would bring about the fall' of Premier Mossadeq. Once the deed had been accomplished, the CIA commissioned a history of its successful operation to change the Iranian regime. It is published here in full." "This document is crucial to an understanding of Iranian history: but it also has some considerable relevance to the constitutional history of the United Kingdom. Here we have a short guide through the labyrinths of the world where things are not what they seem to be. Yet, the parallels with the current confrontation with Iran are all too clear."--BOOK JACKET.