Pharmaceuticals In The Environment Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : R E Hester
R M Harrison
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2015-08-27
Page : 294
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1782622349
Description :


Medicines play an important role in the treatment and prevention of disease in humans and animals, but residues from these medicines can be released into the environment through a number of routes during their manufacture, use and disposal. It is only recently that the potential environmental impacts of this exposure to pharmaceuticals are being considered. The book explores where pharmaceutical residues can be found, e.g. in surface waters, drinking water, sediments and the marine environment; the sources of these residues, from manufacture through to disposal of unused medicines; how these residues break down; and how this all impacts on wildlife and human health. In reviewing the current position and examining further possible impacts, this book is an important reference for researchers working in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as for environmentalists, policy makers and students on pharmacy and environmental science courses wanting to better understand the impacts of pharmaceuticals on the environment.


Author : Klaus Kümmerer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-10-10
Page : 521
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3540746641
Description :


Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.


Author : B.M. Peake
R. Braund
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-11-13
Page : 268
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 190881845X
Description :


The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment identifies pathways of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment, beginning with the role of global prescribing and disposal practices. The book then discusses typical levels of common pharmaceuticals and how they can be determined in natural waters such as raw and treated sewage, and in potable water. In addition, sections examine methods currently available to degrade pharmaceuticals in natural waters and some of their ecotoxicological impacts, along with future considerations and the growing concept of product stewardship. Encompasses the full lifecycle of common pharmaceuticals, from prescription and dispensing practices to their occurrence in a range of different types of natural waters and their environmental impact Explores the role of the healthcare system and its affect on users Beneficial for environmental engineers involved in the design and operation of appropriate degradation technologies of the pharmaceutical prescription and disposal practices


Author : R. E. Hester
R. M. Harrison
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2015-09-15
Page : 312
Category : Drugs
ISBN 13 : 178262189X
Description :


An important reference for researchers in the pharmaceutical industry, environmentalists and policy makers wanting to better understand the impacts of pharmaceuticals on the environment.


Author : Diana S. Aga
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-12-26
Page : 408
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9781420052336
Description :


The detection of pharmaceutical residues remained elusive until instruments such as liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry became commonplace in environmental laboratories. The documentation of the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues and endocrine disrupting chemicals in water resources has raused questions about their long-term effects in the ecosystem and their potential effects on human health. Fate of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment and in Water Treatment Systems covers critical issues regarding the occurrence, persistence, treatment, and transformations of pharmaceuticals in the environment and in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems. Acompilation of the recent literature, the book reviews advances in instrumentation and sample preparation techniques and includes an example of how risk assessment is conducted to investigate the fate and effects of pharmaceutical contaminants. Several chapters explore the behavior of pharmaceuticals in soil and the potential side effects of antibiotics on plants after uptake. Experts in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems present new findings on the effectiveness of current treatment practices to reduce the concentrations of pharmaceuticals at the source, providing new insights on how to better mitigate future problems brought about by emerging environmental contaminants. Contributing authors from academia, government, and industry provide a well-balanced multi-disciplinary perspective on the issues, discussing topics ranging from field studies documenting the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in environmental compartments, to laboratory studies determining the degradation kinetics and formation of by-products during treatment. The text discusses the factors that affect the environmental fate of pharmaceuticals in soil and water, facilitate the development of best management practices, and optimize treatment systems for removal of these compounds from the environment.


Author : Klaus Kümmerer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
Page : 265
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3662046342
Description :


Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.


Author : Bryan W. Brooks
Duane B. Huggett
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-06-08
Page : 304
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1461434734
Description :


Human interaction with the environment remains one of the most pervasive facets of modern society. In a world characterized by rapid population growth, unprecedented global trade and digital communications, energy security, natural resource scarcities, climatic changes and environmental quality, emerging diseases and public health, biodiversity and habitat modifications are routinely touted by the popular press as they canvas global political agendas and scholarly endeavors.


Author : Benoit Roig
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2010
Page : 198
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 184339314X
Description :


Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: current knowle


Author : Walter E. Goldstein
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-06-12
Page : 262
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 146651745X
Description :


A Proactive Approach to Improving and Protecting the Environment The accumulation of pharmaceuticals in the environment is a growing concern, the magnitude of which has not been determined, yet cannot be ignored. Touting the benefits of research and discovery as it relates to a pharmaceutical presence in the environment, Pharmaceutical Accumulation in the Environment: Prevention, Control, Health Effects, and Economic Impact explores ways to effectively minimize the harmful impact of environmental contaminants. It considers current practice in the field, provides a historical reference, and presents effective methods for detecting and containing low levels of environmental contaminants. It also offers practical suggestions for mobilizing private and public resources. Discusses Health Impacts and Risks to Humans and Other Living Species The contributors of this work consider important environmental contaminants that include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and special products, such as contrast agents and illicit drugs. This book describes current health impact concerns, methods for assessing risk, and lessening the negative impact on health through research and analysis. It examines the costs of wastewater treatment, and considers ways to potentially reduce the effect of environmental contaminants in treated water and in the soil. It looks at what may be done about contaminated soil and landfills, addresses the costs of contaminant elimination, and suggests ways to get rid of contaminants sensibly and consistently. It also includes case histories and chapters authored by specialists who are experts in their fields. Developed as a reference for professionals and senior undergraduate and graduate students in environmental science/ecotoxicology, the text proposes advancements and applications that can help control pharmaceutical accumulation and improve the environment. It serves as a resource for those in the pharmaceutical industries, personal care product industries, and related areas; scientists and researchers in related areas; as well as environmental protection agencies, physicians, and medical personnel.


Author :
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-10-10
Page : 600
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780080549705
Description :


Pharmaceutically active substances are a class of new, so-called "emerging" contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. Human and veterinary drugs are constantly being introduced into the environment, mainly as a result of the manufacturing process. Over time, this level of chemical input may lead to long-term concentrations and promote continual, but unnoticed adverse effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle discusses state-of-the-art analytical methods for trace determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples while reviewing the fate and occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle (elimination in wastewater and drinking water treatment). Focus is given to the newest developments in the treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors and advance oxidation processes. * Well-structured overview of latest developments in trace determination * Concise and critical compilation of literature published over the past few years * Focuses on new treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors and advance oxidation processes.


Author : Papadopoulou, Paraskevi
Marouli, Christina
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2019-03-15
Page : 449
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 1522576363
Description :


Environmental health is an area with significant developments and noteworthy challenges that expand into various disciplines: medicine and public health, sociology and communications, technology, policymaking, and legislation. Due to the massive amount of health-related issues, additional literature involving environmental health is required to improve the wellbeing of citizens worldwide. Environmental Exposures and Human Health Challenges provides interdisciplinary insights into concepts and theories related to environmental exposures and human health impacts via the air, water, soil, heavy metal exposure, and other chemical toxins. The book also addresses inequalities and environmental injustices in relation to environmental exposures and health impacts. Covering topics such as health policies, pollution effects, and heavy metal exposure, this publication is designed for public health professionals, preventive medicine specialists, clinicians, data scientists, environmentalists, academicians, practitioners, researchers, and students.


Author : R E Hester
R M Harrison
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2015-08-27
Page : 294
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1782622349
Description :


Medicines play an important role in the treatment and prevention of disease in humans and animals, but residues from these medicines can be released into the environment through a number of routes during their manufacture, use and disposal. It is only recently that the potential environmental impacts of this exposure to pharmaceuticals are being considered. The book explores where pharmaceutical residues can be found, e.g. in surface waters, drinking water, sediments and the marine environment; the sources of these residues, from manufacture through to disposal of unused medicines; how these residues break down; and how this all impacts on wildlife and human health. In reviewing the current position and examining further possible impacts, this book is an important reference for researchers working in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as for environmentalists, policy makers and students on pharmacy and environmental science courses wanting to better understand the impacts of pharmaceuticals on the environment.


Author : Klaus Kümmerer
Maximilian Hempel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-06-16
Page : 313
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 3642051995
Description :


Within recent years pharmaceuticals have come into focus as contaminants of the environment (see for example Kümmerer, K. editor: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment). At the same time the issue of sustainable chemistry gained momentum. Bringing both together would result in sustainable pharmacy. Sustainable pharmacy is a totally new issue and approach. It addresses environmental, economical and social aspects of pharmacy. In the present stage the focus will be on environmental issues along the whole lifecycle of a pharmaceutical entity. That is dealing with resources and energy input but also with waste issues for example during the synthesis and production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Furthermore, it would also look on the compounds themselves and will aim to improve the degradability of the compounds after their use in the environment to reduce the environmental risk caused by pharmaceuticals in the environment. Another issue is the people using pharmaceuticals such as pharmacists, medical doctors and patients. How can they contribute to more efficient use of pharmaceuticals with less environmental burden and less risk for drinking water. The book "Sustainable Pharmacy" will address all these issues and will be the first one dealing with this important topic.


Author : Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-05-07
Page : 250
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3319734768
Description :


The indiscriminate use of medications and their inadequate disposal have resulted in them being released into the environment via municipal, hospital and industrial discharges. This volume critically examines the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems, the hazards they entail, and how to minimize their impact on the environment. The topics covered include: historical findings that have made the development of the discipline ecopharmacovigilance possible; the main exposure routes, fate and life cycle of pharmaceuticals in water; occurrence data and the impact on biodiversity; methods used for the detection, analysis and quantification of pharmaceuticals in water and for their removal; current legislation on the presence of emerging contaminants in water; biosensors for environmental analysis and monitoring; and the measures needed to reduce the existing problems. This book is aimed at students, academics and research workers in the fields of toxicology, ecology, microbiology and chemistry, as well as those in the pharmaceutical industry, health sector professionals, and members of government bodies involved in environmental protection and legislation.


Author :
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2005-01-20
Page : 352
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9780080521947
Description :


Hot Spot Pollutants describes how pharmaceuticals and/or endocrine active compounds gain entry into the aquatic ecosystem, effects on specific organisms and the potential risk involved for the whole ecosystem. In addition it presents the latest views and developments regarding legal requirements for assessing the environmental risk of pharmaceuticals. This books includes the views of academic, industry and government scientists, and thus aims for a balanced presentation of all standpoints. The book consists of papers that appeared previously in the journal Toxicology Letters in 2002 and 2003, and have been collected in this single volume to make them accessible to a broader audience. Authors were asked to update their contributions where necessary. See also Toxicology Letters volume 131, issues 1 and 2 (2002), and volume 142 issue 3 (2003). * State-of-the-art information of pharmaceuticals in the environment * Leading Academic, industry and government contributors * Provides the views of the experts in the field * Offers a thorough basis to attain a good overview including all facets of the field


Author : David Taylor
Publisher :
Release : 2015
Page : 313
Category : Drugs
ISBN 13 :
Description :


An important reference for researchers in the pharmaceutical industry, environmentalists and policy makers wanting to better understand the impacts of pharmaceuticals on the environment.


Author : Patrick K. Jjemba
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-11-13
Page : 416
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1119312280
Description :


The revised edition of the guide to environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products The revised and updated second edition of Pharma-Ecology joins the health and environmental sciences professions' concern over the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment and explores how to best minimize their impact. The text highlights the biological effects of various classes of pharmaceutical compounds under clinical settings, their modes of action, and approximate quantities consumed. The second edition contains the most recent knowledge about the ecological impact of PPCPs as more sensitive detection techniques have become available, since the book was first published. The second edition offers the most up-to-date information on pharma ecology and bridges the gap between medicine, public health, and environmental science. This new edition contains helpful learning objectives for each chapter, as well as a brief section at the end of each chapter that presents a set of open ended questions. This vital resource: • Explores the biological effects of pharmaceutical compounds under clinical settings, their modes of action, approximate quantities consumed • Provides researchers and scientists with critical background data on the environmental impacts of PPCPs • Contains the most current information on PPCPs' ecological impacts, based on new detection techniques • Bridges the gap between medicine, public health, and environmental science Written for ecologists, engineers, microbiologists, pharmacists, toxicologists, chemists, physicians, and veterinarians involved in pollution and environmental analysis, the second edition of Pharma-Ecology contains the most current information available on the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.


Author : Daniel R. Thevenot
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2008-03-15
Page : 280
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1843391600
Description :


The European DayWater project has developed a prototype of an Adaptive Decision Support System (ADSS) related to urban stormwater pollution source control. The DayWater ADSS greatly facilitates decision-making for stormwater source control, which is currently impeded by the large number of stakeholders involved and by the necessary multidisciplinary knowledge. This book presents the results of this project, providing new insights into both technical and management issues. The main objectives of its technical chapters are pollution source control modelling, risk and impact assessment, and evaluation and comparison of best management practices. It also covers management aspects, such as the analysis of the decision-making processes in stormwater source control, at a European scale, and stormwater management strategies in general. The combination of scientific-technical and socio-managerial knowledge, with the strong cooperation of numerous end-users, reflects the innovative character of this book which includes actual applications of the ADSS prototype in significant case studies. DayWater: an Adaptive Decision Support System for Urban Stormwater Management contains 26 chapters collectively prepared by DayWater scientific partners and end-users associated with this European Research and Development project. It includes: A general presentation of the DayWater Adaptive Decision Support System (ADSS) structure and operation modes A detailed description of the major components of this ADSS prototype The assessment of its components in significant case studies in France, Germany and Sweden The proceedings of the International Conference on Decision Support Systems for Integrated Urban Water Management, held in Paris on 3-4 November 2005. The book presents the ADSS prototype including a combination of freely accessible on-line databases, guidance documents, “road maps” and modelling or multi-criteria analysis tools. As demonstrated in several significant case studies the challenge for stormwater managers is to make the benefits of urban stormwater management visible to society, resulting in active co-operation of a diversity of stakeholders. Only then, will sustainable management succeed. DayWater: an Adaptive Decision Support System for Urban Stormwater Management advances this cause of sustainable urban management through Urban stormwater management, and makes achievable (by means of risk and vulnerability tools which are included) the goal of integrated urban water management (IUWM).


Author : Peter J. Dunn
Andrew Wells
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-02-02
Page : 388
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9783527629695
Description :


Edited by three of the world's leading pharmaceutical scientists, this is the first book on this important and hot topic, containing much previously unpublished information. As such, it covers all aspects of green chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry, from simple molecules to complex proteins, and from drug discovery to the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Furthermore, this ready reference contains several convincing case studies from industry, such as Taxol, Pregabalin and Crestor, illustrating how this multidisciplinary approach has yielded efficient and environmentally-friendly processes. Finally, a section on technology and tools highlights the advantages of green chemistry.


Author : Ester Heath
Marina Isidori
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-01
Page : 469
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3030210480
Description :


The book provides current knowledge and research on the presence and effects of anticancer drug residues in the aqueous environment and covers all relevant aspects of the presence of these residues in wastewaters and natural aquatic systems, where numerous analogies between their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans and their effects in the environment can be drawn. This book comprises of 18 chapters and represents the combined work of leading scientists from different research institutions from across the globe. We present the state of the art in the field of anticancer drug residues in the aquatic environment while being cognizant of the many challenges that remain.