Principles And Practice Of X Ray Spectrometric Analysis Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : E.P. Bertin
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2012-10-12
Page : 1080
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9781461344186
Description :


Since the first edition of this book was published early in 1970, three major developments have occurred in the field of x-ray spectrochemical analysis. First, wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, in 1970 already securely established among instrumental analytical methods, has matured. Highly sophisticated, miniaturized, modular, solid-state circuitry has replaced elec tron-tube circuitry in the readout system. Computers are now widely used to program and control fully automated spectrometers and to store, process, and compute analytical concentrations directly and immediately from ac cumulated count data. Matrix effects have largely yielded to mathematical treatment. The problems associated with the ultralong-wavelength region have been largely surmounted. Indirect (association) methods have extended the applicability of x-ray spectrometry to the entire periodic table and even to certain classes of compounds. Modern commercial, computerized, auto matic, simultaneous x-ray spectrometers can index up to 60 specimens in turn into the measurement position and for each collect count data for up to 30 elements and read out the analytical results in 1--4 min-all corrected for absorption-enhancement and particle-size or surface-texture effects and wholly unattended. Sample preparation has long been the time-limiting step in x-ray spectrochemical analysis. Second, energy-dispersive spectrometry, in 1970 only beginning to assume its place among instrumental analytical methods, has undergone phenomenal development and application and, some believe, may supplant wavelength spectrometry for most applications in the foreseeable future.


Author : Eugene P. Bertin
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1970
Page : 679
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Excitation and nature of X-rays; X-ray spectra -- Properties of X-ray -- X-ray secondary-emission (fluorescence) spectrometry; general introduction -- Excitation -- Dispersion -- Detection -- Measurement -- Pulse-height analysis; nondispersive analysis -- Laboratory, automated, and special X-ray spectrometers -- Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis -- Precision and error; counting statistics -- Absorption-enhancement effects -- Sensitivity and resolution; spectral-line interference -- Methods of quantitative analysis -- Mathematical correction of absorption-enhancement effects -- Specimen preparation and presentation--general, solids, powders, briquets, fusion products -- Specimen preparation and presentation--liquids; supported specimens -- Measurement of thickness of films and platings -- Selected-area analysis -- Other analytical methods based on emission, absorption, and scatter of X-rays; other spectrometric methods involving X-rays -- The electron-probe microanalyzer.


Author : Eugene P. Bertin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
Page : 485
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1489922040
Description :


X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been an established, widely practiced method of instrumental chemical analysis for about 30 years. However, although many colleges and universities offer full-semester courses in optical spectrometric methods of instrumental analysis and in x-ray dif fraction, very few offer full courses in x-ray spectrometric analysis. Those courses that are given are at the graduate level. Consequently, proficiency in this method must still be acquired by: self-instruction; on-the-job training and experience; "workshops" held by the x-ray instrument manu facturers; the one- or two-week summer courses offered by a few uni versities; and certain university courses in analytical and clinical chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy. geology, ceramics. etc. that devote a small portion of their time to applications of x-ray spectrometry to those respective disciplines. Moreover, with all due respect to the books on x-ray spectrometric analysis now in print, in my opinion none is really suitable as a text or manual for beginners in the discipline. In 1968, when I undertook the writing of the first edition of my previous book, Principles and Practice of X-Ray Spectrometric Analysis,* my objective was to provide a student text. However, when all the material was compiled, I decided to provide a more comprehensive book, which was also lacking at that time. Although that book explains principles, instrumentation, and methods at the begin ner's level, this material is distributed throughout a mass of detail and more advanced material.


Author : Eugene P. Bertin
Publisher :
Release : 1978
Page : 1079
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : E.P. Bertin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 1080
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1461344166
Description :


Since the first edition of this book was published early in 1970, three major developments have occurred in the field of x-ray spectrochemical analysis. First, wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, in 1970 already securely established among instrumental analytical methods, has matured. Highly sophisticated, miniaturized, modular, solid-state circuitry has replaced elec tron-tube circuitry in the readout system. Computers are now widely used to program and control fully automated spectrometers and to store, process, and compute analytical concentrations directly and immediately from ac cumulated count data. Matrix effects have largely yielded to mathematical treatment. The problems associated with the ultralong-wavelength region have been largely surmounted. Indirect (association) methods have extended the applicability of x-ray spectrometry to the entire periodic table and even to certain classes of compounds. Modern commercial, computerized, auto matic, simultaneous x-ray spectrometers can index up to 60 specimens in turn into the measurement position and for each collect count data for up to 30 elements and read out the analytical results in 1--4 min-all corrected for absorption-enhancement and particle-size or surface-texture effects and wholly unattended. Sample preparation has long been the time-limiting step in x-ray spectrochemical analysis. Second, energy-dispersive spectrometry, in 1970 only beginning to assume its place among instrumental analytical methods, has undergone phenomenal development and application and, some believe, may supplant wavelength spectrometry for most applications in the foreseeable future.


Author : Eugene P. Bertin
Publisher :
Release : 1985
Page : 137
Category : X-ray spectroscopy
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Paul van der Heide
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-11-01
Page : 264
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1118162900
Description :


This book introduces readers interested in the field of X-rayPhotoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to the practical concepts in thisfield. The book first introduces the reader to the language andconcepts used in this field and then demonstrates how theseconcepts are applied. Including how the spectra are produced,factors that can influence the spectra (all initial and final stateeffects are discussed), how to derive speciation, volume analysedand how one controls this (includes depth profiling), andquantification along with background substraction and curve fittingmethodologies. This is presented in a concise yet comprehensive manner and eachsection is prepared such that they can be read independently ofeach other, and all equations are presented using the most commonlyused units. Greater emphasis has been placed on spectralunderstanding/interpretation. For completeness sake, a descriptionof commonly used instrumentation is also presented. Finally, somecomplementary surface analytical techniques and associated conceptsare reviewed for comparative purposes in stand-alone appendixsections.


Author : P.J. Potts
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
Page : 622
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
ISBN 13 : 940153988X
Description :


without an appreciation of what happens in between. The techniques available for the chemical analysis of silicate rocks have undergone a revolution over the last 30 years. However, to use an analytical technique most effectively, No longer is the analytical balance the only instrument used it is essential to understand its analytical characteristics, in for quantitative measurement, as it was in the days of classi particular the excitation mechanism and the response of the cal gravimetric procedures. A wide variety of instrumental signal detection system. In this book, these characteristics techniques is now commonly used for silicate rock analysis, have been described within a framework of practical ana lytical aplications, especially for the routine multi-element including some that incorporate excitation sources and detec tion systems that have been developed only in the last few analysis of silicate rocks. All analytical techniques available years. These instrumental developments now permit a wide for routine silicate rock analysis are discussed, including range of trace elements to be determined on a routine basis. some more specialized procedures. Sufficient detail is In parallel with these exciting advances, users have tended included to provide practitioners of geochemistry with a firm to become more remote from the data production process. base from which to assess current performance, and in some This is, in part, an inevitable result of the widespread intro cases, future developments.


Author : Tery L. Barr
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1994-03-10
Page : 384
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780849386534
Description :


Modern ESCA: The Principles and Practice of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is a unique text/reference that focuses on the branch of electron spectroscopy generally labeled as either Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) or X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The book emphasizes the use of core level and valence band binding energies, their shifts, and line widths. It describes the background, present status, and possible future uses of a number of recently developed branches of ESCA, including:


Author : Rene Van Grieken
A. Markowicz
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-11-27
Page : 1016
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780203908709
Description :


"Updates fundamentals and applications of all modes of x-ray spectrometry, including total reflection and polarized beam x-ray fluorescence analysis, and synchrotron radiation induced x-ray emission. Promotes the accurate measurement of samples while reducing the scattered background in the x-ray spectrum."


Author : Joseph Price Remington
Arthur Osol
Publisher :
Release : 1980
Page : 1928
Category : Farmaceutica
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : William C. Golton
Publisher : ASTM International
Release : 1992
Page : 203
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 9780803114654
Description :



Author : Keith A. Smith
Malcolm S. Cresser
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-10-15
Page : 700
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 9780203913024
Description :


Evaluating traditional and recent analytical methods according to speed, sensitivity, and cost-efficiency, this reference supports specialists in the selection of effective analytical techniques and equipment for the study of soils, soil contaminants, and environmental samples. Updated and revised, this Third Edition illustrates the advantages, limitations, range, and challenges of the major analytical approaches utilized in modern research laboratories. It includes new chapters and expanded discussions of the measurement of organic pollutants in the environment and gas fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere, and an extensive range of environmental materials.


Author : Burkhard Beckhoff
Birgit Kanngie├čer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-05-18
Page : 863
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3540367225
Description :


X-Ray fluorescence analysis is an established technique for non-destructive elemental materials analysis. This book gives a user-oriented practical guidance to the application of this method. The book gives a survey of the theoretical fundamentals, analytical instrumentation, software for data processing, various excitation regimes including gracing incidents and microfocus measurements, quantitative analysis, applications in routine and micro analysis, mineralogy, biology, medicine, criminal investigations, archeology, metallurgy, abrasion, microelectronics, environmental air and water analysis. This book is the bible of X-Ray fluorescence analysis. It gives the basic knowledge on this technique, information on analytical equipment and guides the reader to the various applications. It appeals to researchers, analytically active engineers and advanced students.


Author : Ron Jenkins
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1995-04-26
Page : 504
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1482273381
Description :


This work covers important aspects of X-ray spectrometry, from basic principles to the selection of instrument parameters and sample preparation. This edition explicates the use of combined X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction data, and features new applications in environmental studies, forensic science, archeometry and the analysis of metals


Author : Hans Bach
Dieter Krause
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
Page : 528
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 3662037467
Description :


The first book completely devoted to the subject, this volume describes the analysis of the composition and structure of glass and glass ceramics. Although conceived as a monograph, the individual chapters are written by leading Schott experts on the corresponding subjects.


Author : Joseph Goldstein
Dale E. Newbury
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
Page : 673
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1461332737
Description :


This book has evolved by processes of selection and expansion from its predecessor, Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (PSEM), published by Plenum Press in 1975. The interaction of the authors with students at the Short Course on Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis held annually at Lehigh University has helped greatly in developing this textbook. The material has been chosen to provide a student with a general introduction to the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis suitable for application in such fields as biology, geology, solid state physics, and materials science. Following the format of PSEM, this book gives the student a basic knowledge of (1) the user-controlled functions of the electron optics of the scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe, (2) the characteristics of electron-beam-sample inter actions, (3) image formation and interpretation, (4) x-ray spectrometry, and (5) quantitative x-ray microanalysis. Each of these topics has been updated and in most cases expanded over the material presented in PSEM in order to give the reader sufficient coverage to understand these topics and apply the information in the laboratory. Throughout the text, we have attempted to emphasize practical aspects of the techniques, describing those instru ment parameters which the microscopist can and must manipulate to obtain optimum information from the specimen. Certain areas in particular have been expanded in response to their increasing importance in the SEM field. Thus energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, which has undergone a tremendous surge in growth, is treated in substantial detail.


Author : Philip A. Baedecker
Publisher :
Release : 1987
Page :
Category : Analytical geochemistry
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Analytical methods used in the Geologic Division laboratories of the U.S. Geological Survey for the inorganic chemical analysis of rock and mineral samples.


Author : D. L. Sparks
A. L. Page
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-01-22
Page : 1424
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0891188258
Description :


A thorough presentation of analytical methods for characterizing soil chemical properties and processes, Methods, Part 3 includes chapters on Fourier transform infrared, Raman, electron spin resonance, x-ray photoelectron, and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies, and more.


Author : Thomas R. Dulski
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-10-06
Page : 592
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1351407368
Description :


This work details minor, trace and ultratrace methods; addresses the essential stages that precede measurement; and highlights the measurement systems most likey to be used by the pragmatic analyst. It features key material on inclusion and phase isolation. The book is designed to provide useful maps and signposts for metals analysts who must verify that stringent trace level compositional specifications have been met.