Pyrrhonism Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Adrian Kuzminski
Publisher : Lexington Books
Release : 2008-06-19
Page : 170
Category : Religion
ISBN 13 : 0739131397
Description :


Pyrrhonism is commonly confused with scepticism in Western philosophy. Unlike sceptics, who believe there are no true beliefs, Pyrrhonists suspend judgment about all beliefs, including the belief that there are no true beliefs. Pyrrhonism was developed by a line of ancient Greek philosophers, from its founder Pyrrho of Elis in the fourth century BCE through Sextus Empiricus in the second century CE. Pyrrhonists offer no view, theory, or knowledge about the world, but recommend instead a practice, a distinct way of life, designed to suspend beliefs and ease suffering. Adrian Kuzminski examines Pyrrhonism in terms of its striking similarity to some Eastern non-dogmatic soteriological traditions-particularly Madhyamaka Buddhism. He argues that its origin can plausibly be traced to the contacts between Pyrrho and the sages he encountered in India, where he traveled with Alexander the Great. Although Pyrrhonism has not been practiced in the West since ancient times, its insights have occasionally been independently recovered, most recently in the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein. Kuzminski shows that Pyrrhonism remains relevant perhaps more than ever as an antidote to today's cultures of belief.


Author : Diego E. Machuca
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-11-21
Page : 248
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9789400737648
Description :


This is the first collection of original essays entirely devoted to a detailed study of the Pyrrhonian tradition. The twelve contributions collected in the present volume combine to offer a historical and systematic analysis of the form of skepticism known as “Pyrrhonism”. They discuss whether the Pyrrhonist is an ethically engaged agent, whether he can claim to search for truth, and other thorny questions concerning ancient Pyrrhonism; explore its influence on certain modern thinkers such as Pierre Bayle and David Hume; and examine Pyrrhonian skepticism in relation to contemporary analytic philosophy.


Author : Sextus (Empiricus.)
Empiricus Sextus
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 1996
Page : 335
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
ISBN 13 : 9780195092134
Description :


The Outlines of Pyrrhonism by the 2nd century A.D. Greek physician Sextus Empiricus was immensely influential in the history of Western philosophy. The rediscovery and publication of this work in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led directly to the skepticism of Montaigne, Gassendi, Bayle, Descartes, Berkeley, Hume, and others, and eventually to the preoccupation of modern philosophy with attempts to refute or otherwise combat philosophical skepticism. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that Pyrrhonism--the form of skepticism professed by Sextus--is in several important respects quite different from the modern forms of skepticism to which the writings of Sextus have given rise. Some of these differences are of particular philosophic interest because they seem to render the ancient form immune to many of the standard responses to skepticism that are made today. In this book, which incorporates a new translation of the Outlines in their entirety, Benson Mates presents Pyrrhonism not as a mere historical curiosity, as has often been done, but as a philosophical position eminently worthy of serious philosophical consideration here and now. His thorough introduction sets the stage by explaining what Pyrrhonism is and what it is not, and by contrasting it in the relevant respects with modern skepticism. He gives particular attention to explicating a number of quasi-technical terms that occur frequently in the Outlines and have decisive bearing on the philosophical content. By rendering these terms more accurately and uniformly in his translation, he seeks to make the essential feautres of Sextus's Pyrrhonism more evident to the reader. The latter part of the book consists of a detailed Commentary, which endeavors to discuss and explain the work, section by section, from a philosophical (as contrasted with a philological) point of view.


Author : Dee L. Clayman
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
Release : 2009
Page : 261
Category : Literary Criticism
ISBN 13 : 3110220806
Description :


Early Skepticism and its founder, Pyrrho of Elis, were introduced to the world by the poet and philosopher Timon of Phlius. This is the first book-length study of Timon s work in English, and includes a new reconstruction of his most influential poem Silloi . All of the extant fragments are translated and discussed as literature rather than as source material for the history of philosophy. The book concludes with a definition of skeptical aesthetics that demonstrates the importance of Timon and early Skepticism to the most influential Hellenistic poets: Callimachus, Theocritus and Apollonius of Rhodes. "


Author : Richard Bett
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-03-31
Page : 286
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 1108471072
Description :


Explores what it was like to argue and to live as a practitioner of Pyrrhonist skepticism.


Author : Sextus (Empiricus.)
Sextus Empiricus
Publisher :
Release : 1990
Page : 283
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9780879755973
Description :


Throughout history philosophers have sought to define, understand, and delineate concepts important to human well-being. One such concept is "knowledge." Many philosophers believed that absolute, certain knowledge, is possible--that the physical world and ideas formulated about it could be given solid foundation unaffected by the varieties of mere opinion. Sextus Empiricus stands as an example of the "skeptic" school of thought whose members believed that knowledge was either unattainable or, if a genuine possibility, the conditions necessary to achieve it were next to impossible to satisfy. In other words, in the absence of complete knowledge, one must make do with the information provided by an imperfect world and conveyed to the mind through sense impressions that can often deceive us. Throughout his life Sextus Empiricus entered into intellectual combat with those who confidently claimed to possess indubitable knowledge. For skeptics, the best one can hope to achieve is a reasonable suspension of judgment--remaining ever mindful that claims to knowledge require careful scrutiny, thoughtful analysis, and critical review if we are to prevent ourselves and others from plunging headlong into mistaken notions.


Author : Luciano Floridi
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2002-04-11
Page : 172
Category : Literary Collections
ISBN 13 : 9780199770885
Description :


The subject is Sextus Empiricus, one the chief sources of information on ancient philosophy and one of the most influential authors in the history of skepticism. Sextus' works have had an extraordinary influence on western philosophy, and this book provides the first exhaustive and detailed study of their recovery, transmission, and intellectual influence through Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. This study deals with Sextus' biography, as well as the history of the availability and reception of his works. It also contains an extensive bibliographical section, including editions, translations, and commentaries.


Author : Sextus (Empiricus.)
Publisher :
Release : 1993
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Diego E. Machuca
Publisher : BRILL
Release : 2011-07-12
Page : 207
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9004207767
Description :


Scholarship on ancient Pyrrhonism has made tremendous advances over the past three decades, thanks especially to the careful reexamination of Sextus Empiricus’ extant corpus. Building on this momentum, the authors of the eight essays collected here examine some of the most vexed and intriguing exegetical and philosophical questions posed by Sextus’ presentation of this form of skepticism. The essays explore in a new light the skeptical interpretation of Plato, the differences between Pyrrhonism and Cyrenaicism, the Pyrrhonist’s stance on ordinary life, religion, language, and ethics, Sextus’ discussion of our access to our own mental states, and the relationship between Pyrrhonism and epistemic internalism and externalism. These new essays represent a substantial contribution to the advancement of scholarship on Pyrrhonian skepticism.


Author : J.R. Maia Neto
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 158
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9401102317
Description :


Augustine's christianization of Plato and Thomas Aquinas's of Aristotle provided the two main foundations of medieval Judeo- Christian philosophy. In The Christianization of Pyrrhonism, José R. Maia Neto shows that Greek scepticism played a similar role in the development of a major strand of modern religious thought. From the Jansenist reaction of Molinism in the early 17th century to Shestov's resistance to the arrival of Kantian enlightenment in Russia in the late 19th century, Greek scepticism was reconstructed in terms of Christian doctrines and used against major secular philosophers who posed threats to religion. At the same time, the ancient sceptics' practical stance was attacked in order that it does not constitute a viable alternative to the modern secular philosophies. The resulting Christianized Pyrrhonism would be the basis for a genuine Christian or Biblical thought, for the first time emancipated from the rationalist assumptions and methods of Greek philosophy. The Christianization of Pyrrhonism is extremely valuable for those interested in the modern developments of ancient scepticism, in the relations between religious and philosophical ideas in modernity, and for scholars and the general public interested in Pascal, Kierkegaard and Shestov.


Author : Richard Henry Popkin
Publisher : Hackett Publishing
Release : 1993
Page : 385
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9780872202511
Description :


In this sequel to his classic study The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes, Popkin examines the important role played by the revival and reformulation of classical scepticism in eighteenth-century philosophy.


Author : Sextus (Empiricus.)
Publisher :
Release : 1939
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Diego E. Machuca
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-07-17
Page : 248
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9789400719910
Description :


This is the first collection of original essays entirely devoted to a detailed study of the Pyrrhonian tradition. The twelve contributions collected in the present volume combine to offer a historical and systematic analysis of the form of skepticism known as “Pyrrhonism”. They discuss whether the Pyrrhonist is an ethically engaged agent, whether he can claim to search for truth, and other thorny questions concerning ancient Pyrrhonism; explore its influence on certain modern thinkers such as Pierre Bayle and David Hume; and examine Pyrrhonian skepticism in relation to contemporary analytic philosophy.


Author : Diego E. Machuca
Publisher : BRILL
Release : 2011-07-12
Page : 220
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9004207775
Description :


This volume collects eight new essays on ancient Pyrrhonism as it is presented in Sextus Empiricus' writings. They discuss issues not previously examined or reconsider old ones from a different perspective, thus proposing original interpretations and advancing the scholarly study of Pyrrhonian skepticism.


Author : Diego E. Machuca
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2011-07-17
Page : 248
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9789400719903
Description :


This is the first collection of original essays entirely devoted to a detailed study of the Pyrrhonian tradition. The twelve contributions collected in the present volume combine to offer a historical and systematic analysis of the form of skepticism known as “Pyrrhonism”. They discuss whether the Pyrrhonist is an ethically engaged agent, whether he can claim to search for truth, and other thorny questions concerning ancient Pyrrhonism; explore its influence on certain modern thinkers such as Pierre Bayle and David Hume; and examine Pyrrhonian skepticism in relation to contemporary analytic philosophy.


Author : Andrew David Wong
Publisher :
Release : 2017
Page : 177
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :


The "scope" of Pyrrhonian Skepticism refers to the extent to which Skeptics bear epistemic commitments. There are two respects in which the debate between unmitigated and mitigated interpretations of Skepticism is significant. First, there is the philosophical question of which version of Pyrrhonism is more coherent and compelling when considered on its own merits. Second, there is the historical question of which sort of interpretation accurately characterizes Pyrrhonism itself, as it is presented in the works of Sextus Empiricus. My own arguments proceed accordingly. On the philosophical front, I argue (primarily in Chapters 2 and 3) that when the force of the Skeptical modes is fully understood, they are unmitigated in scope. On the historical side, I argue (primarily in Chapters 1 and 4) that an unmitigated interpretation of Pyrrhonism is consistent with the Sextan corpus. Throughout, my ultimate aim is to present a vision of unmitigated skepticism that is, if not an expression of the historical reality of Pyrrhonism, at least a direct descendant of it. The central argument concerns the Five Modes of Agrippa, which are widely regarded as comprising the most powerful argument of Pyrrhonian Skepticism: the "Pyrrhonian Problematic." The intuitive force of the Problematic lies in its generality. It threatens to cast into doubt every claim that can be advanced on every subject. According to the standard interpretation, the Problematic achieves this by constituting a declarative argument that consists of appealing premises and the conclusion that epistemic justification is impossible. I argue that this interpretation fails to capture the intuitive force of the Problematic in two ways: First, it is a mistake to interpret the scope of the Problematic as being narrowly restricted to the concept of epistemic justification. Second, and more importantly, it is a mistake to assume that the Problematic is an argument in the first place. Understanding its full potential requires that we instead interpret the Problematic procedurally, as a set of instructions that the Skeptic implements in engaging dialectically with an interlocutor's claims.


Author : Sextus Empiricus
Sexto Empírico
Publisher : Loeb Classical Library
Release : 1971
Page : 416
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 :
Description :


Sextus Empiricus (ca. 160?210 CE), exponent of scepticism and critic of the Dogmatists, was a Greek physician and philosopher, pupil and successor of the medical sceptic Herodotus (not the historian) of Tarsus. He probably lived for years in Rome and possibly also in Alexandria and Athens. His three surviving works are 'Outlines of Pyrrhonism' (three books on the practical and ethical scepticism of Pyrrho of Elis, ca. 360?275 BCE, as developed later, presenting also a case against the Dogmatists); 'Against the Dogmatists' (five books dealing with the Logicians, the Physicists, and the Ethicists); and 'Against the Professors' (six books: Grammarians, Rhetors, Geometers, Arithmeticians, Astrologers, and Musicians). These two latter works might be called a general criticism of professors of all arts and sciences. Sextus's work is a valuable source for the history of thought especially because of his development and formulation of former sceptic doctrines. The Loeb Classical Library edition of Sextus Empiricus is in four volumes.


Author : Jonathan Barnes
Publisher :
Release :
Page : 88
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Sextus (Empiricus.)
Publisher :
Release : 1976
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9780674993013
Description :



Author : J. R. Maia Neto
Publisher :
Release : 1963-01-01
Page : 180
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9789401102322
Description :