Social Inequality Across The Generations Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Jani Erola
Elina Kilpi-Jakonen
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2017-03-31
Page : 240
Category :
ISBN 13 : 1786432560
Description :


Social Inequality Across the Generations provides an innovative perspective on social stratification studies by advancing the theoretical and empirical case for the influence of resource compensation. It examines whether resource compensation is a successful mechanism for social mobility, contrasting it against competing types of resource accumulation such as multiplication. This book is the first to cover extensively the role of compensation in intergenerational attainment – a new and rapidly spreading concept in stratification research.


Author : Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Publisher : United Nations
Release : 2020-02-14
Page : 216
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9210043677
Description :


This report examines the links between inequality and other major global trends (or megatrends), with a focus on technological change, climate change, urbanization and international migration. The analysis pays particular attention to poverty and labour market trends, as they mediate the distributional impacts of the major trends selected. It also provides policy recommendations to manage these megatrends in an equitable manner and considers the policy implications, so as to reduce inequalities and support their implementation.


Author : Paul R. Amato
Alan Booth
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-10-07
Page : 242
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 3319083082
Description :


The widening gap between the rich and the poor is turning the American dream into an impossibility for many, particularly children and families. And as the children of low-income families grow to adulthood, they have less access to opportunities and resources than their higher-income peers--and increasing odds of repeating the experiences of their parents. Families in an Era of Increasing Inequality probes the complex relations between social inequality and child development and examines possibilities for disrupting these ongoing patterns. Experts across the social sciences track trends in marriage, divorce, employment, and family structure across socioeconomic strata in the U.S. and other developed countries. These family data give readers a deeper understanding of how social class shapes children's paths to adulthood and how those paths continue to diverge over time and into future generations. In addition, contributors critique current policies and programs that have been created to reduce disparities and offer suggestions for more effective alternatives. Among the topics covered: Inequality begins at home: the role of parenting in the diverging destinies of rich and poor children. Inequality begins outside the home: putting parental educational investments into context. How class and family structure impact the transition to adulthood. Dealing with the consequences of changes in family composition. Dynamic models of poverty-related adversity and child outcomes. The diverging destinies of children and what it means for children's lives. As new initiatives are sought to improve the lives of families and children in the short and long term, Families in an Era of Increasing Inequality is a key resource for researchers and practitioners in family studies, social work, health, education, sociology, demography, and psychology.


Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2018-06-15
Page : 352
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9264301089
Description :


This report provides new evidence on social mobility in the context of increased inequalities of income and opportunities in OECD and selected emerging economies. It covers the aspects of both, social mobility between parents and children and of personal income mobility over the life course, ...


Author : Tingyun Chen
Mr.Jean-Jacques Hallaert
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2018-01-24
Page : 51
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1484340256
Description :


This SDN studies the evolution of inequality across age groups leading up to and since the global financial crisis, as well as implications for fiscal and labor policies. Europe’s population is aging, child and youth poverty are rising, and income support systems are often better equipped to address old-age poverty than the challenges faced by poor children and/or unemployed youth today.


Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Health and Medicine Division
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-04-27
Page : 582
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0309452961
Description :


In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual's health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.


Author : Winfried Koeniger
Carlo Zanella
Publisher :
Release : 2020
Page :
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :


We analyze inequality and mobility across generations in a dynastic economy. Nurture, in terms of bequests and the schooling investment into the next generation, is observable but the draw of nature in terms of ability is hidden, stochastic and persistent across generations. We calibrate the model to U.S. data to illustrate mechanisms through which nurture and nature affect mobility and the transmission of income inequality across generations, thus complementing the vast empirical literature. To provide a benchmark for the observed status quo, we solve for the social optimum in which the planner weighs dynasties equally and chooses optimal tax schedules subject to incentive compatibility. Analyzing the transition from the calibrated steady state to this social optimum, we find that insurance against intergenerational ability risk increases on the transition path by making welfare of family dynasties more dependent on nurture relative to nature. The insurance comes at the cost of less social mobility. We compare welfare in the social optimum and economies with a simple history-independent tax and subsidy system.


Author : Jacqueline Scott
Judith Treas
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-04-15
Page : 624
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 0470998997
Description :


Tackling issues relevant to family life today, this authoritative Companion shows why studying social change in families is fundamental for understanding the transformations in individual and social life, across the globe. Contains original essays by expert contributors on a wide range of topics relating to the sociology of families. Includes coverage of social inequality, parenting practices, children’s work, the changing patterns of citizenship, and multi-cultural families. Gives special attention to European and North American examples. Discusses previously neglected groups, including immigrant families and gays and lesbians. Explores how revolutionary changes in aging, longevity, and sexual behavior have radically affected the experience of different generations, and the relationships between them.


Author : Thomas M. Shapiro
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2005
Page : 238
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 9780195181388
Description :


Shapiro, the author of "Black Wealth/White Wealth," blends personal stories, interviews, empirical data, and analysis to illuminate how family assets produce dramatic consequences in the everyday lives of ordinary citizens.


Author : Hans van Kippersluis
Owen O'Donnell
Publisher :
Release : 2008
Page : 35
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Ralph Bangs
Larry E. Davis
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-09-18
Page : 287
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1493908634
Description :


As much as Americans believe in the promise of an egalitarian, color-blind society, the reality is far from that ideal. People of color consistently lag behind their white counterparts in key quality-of-life areas. Despite many significant gains, widespread structural inequalities continue to exist and thrive. Race and Social Problems takes the long view of this state of affairs, offering both multi-level analysis and a practical blueprint for social justice. It begins by explaining how race-related social problems have changed over the decades. This volume identifies factors contributing to their persistence in this century, most notably the central role of economic disparities in exacerbating related social problems and replicating them for future generations. The chapters expand on this knowledge by detailing innovative and successful strategies for addressing aspects of six major areas of inequality: Poverty: challenging standard American concepts of poverty. Education: approaches toward closing the achievement gap. Intergroup relations: enhancing race dialogues. Family and lifespan: programs targeting families, youth, and elderly. Criminal justice: reducing incarceration and increasing public safety. Health and mental health: promoting positive outcomes. Race and Social Problems casts a wide net across the most pressing social issues, clarifying both the immediate and larger tasks ahead for a range of professionals in such diverse fields as social work, anthropology, communications, criminology, economics, history, law, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology.


Author : Tingyun Chen
Mr.Jean-Jacques Hallaert
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2018-01-24
Page : 51
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1484338448
Description :


This SDN studies the evolution of inequality across age groups leading up to and since the global financial crisis, as well as implications for fiscal and labor policies. Europe’s population is aging, child and youth poverty are rising, and income support systems are often better equipped to address old-age poverty than the challenges faced by poor children and/or unemployed youth today.


Author : Branko Milanovi?
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2006
Page : 35
Category : Equality
ISBN 13 :
Description :


"The paper presents a nontechnical summary of the current state of debate on the measurement and implications of global inequality (inequality between citizens of the world). It discusses the relationship between globalization and global inequality. And it shows why global inequality matters and proposes a scheme for global redistribution. "--World Bank web site.


Author : Jan Servaes
Toks Oyedemi
Publisher : Lexington Books
Release : 2016-08-03
Page : 294
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1498523471
Description :


The Praxis of Social Inequality in Media: A Global Perspective provides a global analysis of the intersection of social inequalities, media, and communication. This volume contains chapters by an international array of scholars and provides case studies from various countries with critical empirical analysis of social inequalities and how they shape media narratives and experiences. The topics examined here include poverty in the media in Britain and Turkey, technology and inequality in Italy and Bangladesh, gender, inequality, and empowerment in India, Mexico, and Australia, and cross national analysis of rape culture, among others.


Author : Deborah Carr
Publisher : Russell Sage Foundation
Release : 2019-01-22
Page : 375
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1610448774
Description :


Thanks to advances in technology, medicine, Social Security, and Medicare, old age for many Americans is characterized by comfortable retirement, good health, and fulfilling relationships. But there are also millions of people over 65 who struggle with poverty, chronic illness, unsafe housing, social isolation, and mistreatment by their caretakers. What accounts for these disparities among older adults? Sociologist Deborah Carr’s Golden Years? draws insights from multiple disciplines to illuminate the complex ways that socioeconomic status, race, and gender shape the nearly every aspect of older adults’ lives. By focusing on an often-invisible group of vulnerable elders, Golden Years? reveals that disadvantages accumulate across the life course and can diminish the well-being of many. Carr connects research in sociology, psychology, epidemiology, gerontology, and other fields to explore the well-being of older adults. On many indicators of physical health, such as propensity for heart disease or cancer, black seniors fare worse than whites due to lifetimes of exposure to stressors such as economic hardships and racial discrimination and diminished access to health care. In terms of mental health, Carr finds that older women are at higher risk of depression and anxiety than men, yet older men are especially vulnerable to suicide, a result of complex factors including the rigid masculinity expectations placed on this generation of men. Carr finds that older adults’ physical and mental health are also closely associated with their social networks and the neighborhoods in which they live. Even though strong relationships with spouses, families, and friends can moderate some of the health declines associated with aging, women—and especially women of color—are more likely than men to live alone and often cannot afford home health care services, a combination that can be isolating and even fatal. Finally, social inequalities affect the process of dying itself, with white and affluent seniors in a better position to convey their end-of-life preferences and use hospice or palliative care than their disadvantaged peers. Carr cautions that rising economic inequality, the lingering impact of the Great Recession, and escalating rates of obesity and opioid addiction, among other factors, may contribute to even greater disparities between the haves and the have-nots in future cohorts of older adults. She concludes that policies, such as income supplements for the poorest older adults, expanded paid family leave, and universal health care could ameliorate or even reverse some disparities. A comprehensive analysis of the causes and consequences of later-life inequalities, Golden Years? demonstrates the importance of increased awareness, strong public initiatives, and creative community-based programs in ensuring that all Americans have an opportunity to age well.


Author : Marta Choroszewicz
Tracey L. Adams
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-03-13
Page : 286
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1351052446
Description :


The literature on gender and professions shows that professional careers continue to be impacted by gender – albeit with important differences among professions and countries. Much less researched is the issue of the significance of gender and age-cohort or generation to professional work. Gender, Age and Inequality in the Professions explores men’s and women’s experiences of professional work and careers through an intersectional lens by focusing on the intersection of gender and age. The chapters explore different professions – including Medicine, Nursing, Law, Academia, Information Technology and Engineering – in different Western countries, in the present and over time. Through original research, and critical re-analysis of existing research, each of the chapters explores the significance of gender and age-cohort or generation to professional work, with particular attention to professionals just entering professional careers, those building professional careers, and comparisons of men and women in professions across generational cohorts. The book contributes to literature on inequalities in the professions by demonstrating the ways in which gender and age converge to confer privilege and produce disadvantage, and the ways in which gender inequality is reproduced, and disrupted, through the activities of professionals on the job. The book constitutes a departure point for future research in terms of theoretical perspectives and empirical findings on how gendered and age-related processes are produced and reproduced in particular organisational, professional and socio-cultural contexts. To enhance generational understanding, relationships and collaboration in educational institutions, organisations and professions, the book ends with a section on policy recommendations for educators, professionals, professional organisations as well as policy- and decision-makers. This book will also appeal to students and researchers in the fields of Sociology, Gender Studies, Organisational and Management Studies, Law, Medicine, Engineering and Information Technology as well as related disciplines.


Author : Matthias Euteneuer
Publisher : Lulu.com
Release : 2011
Page : 380
Category : Families
ISBN 13 : 1447741498
Description :



Author : Chiara Saraceno
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2008-01-01
Page : 336
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1848445148
Description :


Offers insights into the way in which social policies and welfare state arrangements interact with family and gender models. This title presents the research in the field, based on a variety of national and comparative sources and using different theoretical and methodological approaches.


Author : WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health
World Health Organization
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2008
Page : 246
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9241563702
Description :


Social justice is a matter of life and death. It affects the way people live, their consequent chance of illness, and their risk of premature death. We watch in wonder as life expectancy and good health continue to increase in parts of the world and in alarm as they fail to improve in others.


Author : Giovanni Bertin
Giuseppe Moro
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2021-02-26
Page : 264
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 1800378076
Description :


This timely book critically examines the European Social Model as a contested concept and concrete set of European welfare and governance arrangements. It offers a theoretical and empirical analysis of new economic models and existing European investment strategies to address key issues within post-Covid-19 Europe.