The Biology Of Human Behavior Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Robert M. Sapolsky
Publisher : Penguin
Release : 2017-05-02
Page : 800
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0735222789
Description :


Why do we do the things we do? Over a decade in the making, this game-changing book is Robert Sapolsky's genre-shattering attempt to answer that question as fully as perhaps only he could, looking at it from every angle. Sapolsky's storytelling concept is delightful but it also has a powerful intrinsic logic: he starts by looking at the factors that bear on a person's reaction in the precise moment a behavior occurs, and then hops back in time from there, in stages, ultimately ending up at the deep history of our species and its genetic inheritance. And so the first category of explanation is the neurobiological one. What goes on in a person's brain a second before the behavior happens? Then he pulls out to a slightly larger field of vision, a little earlier in time: What sight, sound, or smell triggers the nervous system to produce that behavior? And then, what hormones act hours to days earlier to change how responsive that individual is to the stimuli which trigger the nervous system? By now, he has increased our field of vision so that we are thinking about neurobiology and the sensory world of our environment and endocrinology in trying to explain what happened. Sapolsky keeps going--next to what features of the environment affected that person's brain, and then back to the childhood of the individual, and then to their genetic makeup. Finally, he expands the view to encompass factors larger than that one individual. How culture has shaped that individual's group, what ecological factors helped shape that culture, and on and on, back to evolutionary factors thousands and even millions of years old. The result is one of the most dazzling tours de horizon of the science of human behavior ever attempted, a majestic synthesis that harvests cutting-edge research across a range of disciplines to provide a subtle and nuanced perspective on why we ultimately do the things we do...for good and for ill. Sapolsky builds on this understanding to wrestle with some of our deepest and thorniest questions relating to tribalism and xenophobia, hierarchy and competition, morality and free will, and war and peace. Wise, humane, often very funny, Behave is a towering achievement, powerfully humanizing, and downright heroic in its own right.


Author : Thomas Rowland
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2020-01-17
Page : 233
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1527545776
Description :


Why do human beings behave the way they do? What governs how they act out their daily lives? It is not difficult to provide the traditional argument that it’s largely a matter of the culture in which we live, a product of the influences of family, peers, teachers, religious leaders, the movies we see, the books we read, and so forth. Such behavior often contradicts the independent nature of the human spirit, demanding a certain compromise—we depend on others for our needs, and to obtain these, we must behave accordingly. Evidence grows, however, that, in addition, much of our behavior has its roots in biological processes. Such information indicates that, whether we like to accept it or not, our conduct is often governed by biochemical agents within in the brain, an expression of our animalistic ancestral past, governed by our genetic inheritance, and all beyond the level of our conscious decision-making. This book addresses a series of such behaviors—love, jealousy, travel, suicide, etc.—and examines new-found perspectives that speak to a biological component in explaining just why we behave as we do. Certainly, such scientific insights are limited and currently provide only a narrow insight into human behavior. However, this information clearly forecasts the coming of a greater appreciation that, as members of the animal kingdom, we remain biological beings as well as members of a cooperative society.


Author : Teaching Company
Publisher :
Release : 2005-01-01
Page :
Category : Biology
ISBN 13 : 9781598030815
Description :


Biology and Human Behavior: The Neurological Origins of Individuality, is an interdisciplinary approach to the fascinating subject of behavioral biology, a field that explores interactions among the brain, mind, body, and environment that have a surprising influence on how we behave. In 24 lectures, you will investigate how the human brain is sculpted by evolution, constrained or freed by genes, shaped by early experience, modulated by hormones, and otherwise influenced to produce a wide range of behaviors, some of them abnormal. You will see that little can be explained by thinking about any one of these factors alone because some combination of influences is almost always at work.


Author : Claude A. Piantadosi
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2003
Page : 263
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 0195165012
Description :


The range of environments in which people can survive is extensive, yet most of the natural world cannot support human life. The Biology of Human Survival identifies the key determinants of life or death in extreme environments from a physiologist's perspective, integrating modern concepts of stress, tolerance, and adaptation into explanations of life under Nature's most austere conditions. The book examines how individuals survive when faced with extremes of immersion, heat, cold or altitude, emphasizing the body's recognition of stress and the brain's role in optimizing physiological function in order to provide time to escape or to adapt. In illustrating how human biology adapts to extremes, the book also explains how we learn to cope by blending behavior and biology, first by trial and error, then by rigorous scientific observation, and finally by technological innovation. The book describes life-support technology and how it enables humans to enter once unendurable realm, from the depths of the ocean to the upper reaches of the atmosphere and beyond. Finally, it explores the role that advanced technology might play in special environments of the future, such as long journeys into space.


Author : Kathryn S. Plaisance
Thomas A.C. Reydon
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-10-05
Page : 376
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9789400719514
Description :


This volume provides a broad overview of issues in the philosophy of behavioral biology, covering four main themes: genetic, developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological explanations of behavior. It is both interdisciplinary and empirically informed in its approach, addressing philosophical issues that arise from recent scientific findings in biological research on human and non-human animal behavior. Accordingly, it includes papers by professional philosophers and philosophers of science, as well as practicing scientists. Much of the work in this volume builds on presentations given at the international conference, “Biological Explanations of Behavior: Philosophical Perspectives”, held in 2008 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover in Germany. The volume is intended to be of interest to a broad range of audiences, which includes philosophers (e.g., philosophers of mind, philosophers of biology, and metaethicists), as well as practicing scientists, such as biologists or psychologists whose interests relate to biological explanations of behavior.


Author : Robert M. Sapolsky
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release : 2012-10-16
Page : 288
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1439125058
Description :


Finalist for the Los Angeles Times Book Prize From the man who Oliver Sacks hailed as “one of the best scientist/writers of our time,” a collection of sharply observed, uproariously funny essays on the biology of human culture and behavior. In the tradition of Stephen Jay Gould and Oliver Sacks, Robert Sapolsky offers a sparkling and erudite collection of essays about science, the world, and our relation to both. “The Trouble with Testosterone” explores the influence of that notorious hormone on male aggression. “Curious George’s Pharmacy” reexamines recent exciting claims that wild primates know how to medicate themselves with forest plants. “Junk Food Monkeys” relates the adventures of a troop of baboons who stumble upon a tourist garbage dump. And “Circling the Blanket for God” examines the neurobiological roots underlying religious belief. Drawing on his career as an evolutionary biologist and neurobiologist, Robert Sapolsky writes about the natural world vividly and insightfully. With candor, humor, and rich observations, these essays marry cutting-edge science with humanity, illuminating the interconnectedness of the world’s inhabitants with skill and flair.


Author : G. L. Mangan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-01-21
Page : 584
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1483145387
Description :


The Biology of Human Conduct: East-West Models of Temperament and Personality is a three-part book that explores models of temperament, typology and personality, and personality and conditioning. The first part has four chapters detailing the behavior genetic model; typological models; human typology and higher mental processes; and interactional approach to development. The second part covers theories of personality; strength of the nervous system; the orientation reaction; mobility, concentration, and lability; and the structure of nervous system properties. The last part shows sources of variance in conditioning and socialization.


Author : Institute of Medicine
Board on Health Sciences Policy
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2001-07-02
Page : 288
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 9780309132978
Description :


It's obvious why only men develop prostate cancer and why only women get ovarian cancer. But it is not obvious why women are more likely to recover language ability after a stroke than men or why women are more apt to develop autoimmune diseases such as lupus. Sex differences in health throughout the lifespan have been documented. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health begins to snap the pieces of the puzzle into place so that this knowledge can be used to improve health for both sexes. From behavior and cognition to metabolism and response to chemicals and infectious organisms, this book explores the health impact of sex (being male or female, according to reproductive organs and chromosomes) and gender (one's sense of self as male or female in society). Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health discusses basic biochemical differences in the cells of males and females and health variability between the sexes from conception throughout life. The book identifies key research needs and opportunities and addresses barriers to research. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health will be important to health policy makers, basic, applied, and clinical researchers, educators, providers, and journalists-while being very accessible to interested lay readers.


Author : Per Jensen
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2007-01
Page : 266
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 1845931874
Description :


Written by experts in different areas, this book presents an up-to-date account of the behavioral biology of dogs. Split in three parts, the book addresses the specific aspects of behavioral biology. The first part deals with the evolution and development of the dog, whereas the next part deals with basic aspects of dog behavior. The final part emphasizes on the behavioral problems, their prevention and cure.


Author : Richard D. Alexander
Publisher : Transaction Publishers
Release : 1987
Page : 301
Category : Philosophy
ISBN 13 : 9780202369488
Description :


Despite wide acceptance that the attributes of living creatures have appeared through a cumulative evolutionary process guided chiefly by natural selection, many human activities have seemed analytically inaccessible through such an approach. Prominent evolutionary biologists, for example, have described morality as contrary to the direction of biological evolution, and moral philosophers rarely regard evolution as relevant to their discussions. The Biology of Moral Systems adopts the position that moral questions arise out of conflicts of interest, and that moral systems are ways of using confluences of interest at lower levels of social organization to deal with conflicts of interest at higher levels. Moral systems are described as systems of indirect reciprocity: humans gain and lose socially and reproductively not only by direct transactions, but also by the reputations they gain from the everyday flow of social interactions. The author develops a general theory of human interests, using senescence and effort theory from biology, to help analyze the patterning of human lifetimes. He argues that the ultimate interests of humans are reproductive, and that the concept of morality has arisen within groups because of its contribution to unity in the context, ultimately, of success in intergroup competition. He contends that morality is not easily relatable to universals, and he carries this argument into a discussion of what he calls the greatest of all moral problems, the nuclear arms race. "Crammed with sage observations on moral dilemmas and many reasons why an understanding of evolution based on natural selection will advance thinking in finding practical solutions to our most difficult social problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social SciencesRichard D. Alexander is Donald Ward Tinkle Professor of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, and Curator of Insects, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. A recipient of numerous awards, Dr. Alexander is the author of Darwinism and Human Affairs.


Author : Robert M. Sapolsky
Publisher : Holt Paperbacks
Release : 2004-09-15
Page : 560
Category : Self-Help
ISBN 13 : 9781429935654
Description :


Renowned primatologist Robert Sapolsky offers a completely revised and updated edition of his most popular work, with over 225,000 copies in print Now in a third edition, Robert M. Sapolsky's acclaimed and successful Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers features new chapters on how stress affects sleep and addiction, as well as new insights into anxiety and personality disorder and the impact of spirituality on managing stress. As Sapolsky explains, most of us do not lie awake at night worrying about whether we have leprosy or malaria. Instead, the diseases we fear-and the ones that plague us now-are illnesses brought on by the slow accumulation of damage, such as heart disease and cancer. When we worry or experience stress, our body turns on the same physiological responses that an animal's does, but we do not resolve conflict in the same way-through fighting or fleeing. Over time, this activation of a stress response makes us literally sick. Combining cutting-edge research with a healthy dose of good humor and practical advice, Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers explains how prolonged stress causes or intensifies a range of physical and mental afflictions, including depression, ulcers, colitis, heart disease, and more. It also provides essential guidance to controlling our stress responses. This new edition promises to be the most comprehensive and engaging one yet.


Author : Amy Beth Jordan
John Hibbing
Publisher : SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Release : 2008-01-10
Page : 226
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 :
Description :


This fascinating issue of The ANNALS draws on the recent advancements in biological insights and applies them to political science. Pulling from a range of topics – including the role of personality traits in political decisions; personal temperament and social behavior; and how neuroendocrine mechanisms (stress-coping strategies) and social dominance influence leadership potential – this issue calls for the cooperation between political scientists and life scientists. Most of the compelling articles included in the collection rely on original and empirical findings. Students and researchers will find this special issue a unique and inspiring perspective on applying the remarkable techniques developed in neuroscience, experimental economics, computer simulations, psychophysiology, behavioral genetics, and molecular biology to future political science research projects.


Author : Michael P. Muehlenbein
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2010-07-29
Page :
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1139789007
Description :


Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenotypic and genetic variation within and between human populations, reproductive physiology and behavior, growth and development, and human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. An introductory section provides readers with the historical, theoretical and methodological foundations needed to understand the more complex ideas presented later. Two hundred discussion questions provide starting points for class debate and assignments to test student understanding.


Author : Dorothy M. Fragaszy
Susan Perry
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2008-12-11
Page : 476
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780521087308
Description :


Biology of Traditions explores socially maintained traditions in a broad range of non-human animals.


Author : Debra Niehoff
Publisher :
Release : 2002-02
Page : 368
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 9780743237765
Description :


As scientists at the frontiers of neuroscience are discovering, violent behaviour is not simply a result of poverty or moral decline, but is also located in the way our brains work. This text therefore examines violence from a biological perspective.


Author : Bob Garrett
Gerald Hough
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release : 2017-10-04
Page : 616
Category : Psychology
ISBN 13 : 1506349218
Description :


Ignite your students’ excitement about behavioral neuroscience with Brain & Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience, Fifth Edition by best-selling author Bob Garrett and new co-author Gerald Hough. Garrett and Hough make the field accessible by inviting students to explore key theories and scientific discoveries using detailed illustrations and immersive examples as their guide. Spotlights on case studies, current events, and research findings help students make connections between the material and their own lives. A study guide, revised artwork, new animations, and an interactive eBook stimulate deep learning and critical thinking. A Complete Teaching & Learning Package Contact your rep to request a demo, answer your questions, and find the perfect combination of tools and resources below to fit your unique course needs. SAGE Premium Video Stories of Brain & Behavior and Figures Brought to Life videos bring concepts to life through original animations and easy-to-follow narrations. Watch a sample. Interactive eBook Your students save when you bundle the print version with the Interactive eBook (Bundle ISBN: 978-1-5443-1607-9), which includes access to SAGE Premium Video and other multimedia tools. Learn more. SAGE coursepacks SAGE coursepacks makes it easy to import our quality instructor and student resource content into your school’s learning management system (LMS). Intuitive and simple to use, SAGE coursepacks allows you to customize course content to meet your students’ needs. Learn more. SAGE edge This companion website offers both instructors and students a robust online environment with an impressive array of teaching and learning resources. Learn more. Study Guide The completely revised Study Guide offers students even more opportunities to practice and master the material. Bundle it with the core text for only $5 more! Learn more.


Author : Lesley J. Rogers
Giorgio Vallortigara
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-01-17
Page : 229
Category : Medical
ISBN 13 : 1107005353
Description :


Discusses brain asymmetry from four perspectives - function, evolution, development and causation - covering a wide range of species, including humans.


Author : Daniel T. Willingham
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-04-10
Page : 256
Category : Education
ISBN 13 : 111930136X
Description :


A Map to the Magic of Reading Stop for a moment and wonder: what's happening in your brain right now—as you read this paragraph? How much do you know about the innumerable and amazing connections that your mind is making as you, in a flash, make sense of this request? Why does it matter? The Reading Mind is a brilliant, beautifully crafted, and accessible exploration of arguably life's most important skill: reading. Daniel T. Willingham, the bestselling author of Why Don't Students Like School?, offers a perspective that is rooted in contemporary cognitive research. He deftly describes the incredibly complex and nearly instantaneous series of events that occur from the moment a child sees a single letter to the time they finish reading. The Reading Mind explains the fascinating journey from seeing letters, then words, sentences, and so on, with the author highlighting each step along the way. This resource covers every aspect of reading, starting with two fundamental processes: reading by sight and reading by sound. It also addresses reading comprehension at all levels, from reading for understanding at early levels to inferring deeper meaning from texts and novels in high school. The author also considers the undeniable connection between reading and writing, as well as the important role of motivation as it relates to reading. Finally, as a cutting-edge researcher, Willingham tackles the intersection of our rapidly changing technology and its effects on learning to read and reading. Every teacher, reading specialist, literacy coach, and school administrator will find this book invaluable. Understanding the fascinating science behind the magic of reading is essential for every educator. Indeed, every "reader" will be captivated by the dynamic but invisible workings of their own minds.


Author : John R. Nofsinger
Corey A. Shank
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-04-20
Page : 218
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1000050203
Description :


Why do people’s financial and economic preferences vary so widely? ‘Nurture’ variables such as socioeconomic factors partially explain these differences, but scientists have been discovering that ‘nature’ also plays an important role. This is the first book to bring together these scientific insights for a holistic view of the role of human biology in financial decision-making. Geneticists are now examining which genetic markers are associated with financial and economic preferences. Neuroscientists are now determining where in the brain financial decisions are made and how that varies between people. Endocrinologists relate the level of different hormones circulating in the body to financial risk-taking. Researchers are exploring how physiology and environmental conditions influence investment decisions, and how three types of cognitive ability play essential roles in investment success. This exciting and relevant work being done in these academic silos has generally not been transmitted among the scientific areas, or to industry. For the first time, this book integrates all these areas, explaining the myriad ways in which a person’s biology influences their investing decisions. Financial analysts, advisors, market participants, and upper-level undergraduate and postgraduate students of behavioral finance, behavioral economics, and investing will find this book invaluable, enabling a deeper understanding of investors’ decision-making processes. To further ensure this new material is accessible to students, PowerPoint slides are available online for instructors’ use.


Author : Frans de Waal
Publisher : BRILL
Release : 2014-02-20
Page : 276
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9004263888
Description :


Morality is often defined in opposition to the natural "instincts," or as a tool to keep those instincts in check. New findings in neuroscience, social psychology, animal behavior, and anthropology have brought us back to the original Darwinian position that moral behavior is continuous with the social behavior of animals, and most likely evolved to enhance the cooperativeness of society. In this view, morality is part of human nature rather than its opposite. This interdisciplinary volume debates the origin and working of human morality within the context of science as well as religion and philosophy.