The European Central Bank And The Federal Reserve System A General Comparison Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Cedric Längin
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2011-04-11
Page : 16
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3640890175
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,0, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, course: Effective Environmental Scanning, language: English, abstract: Since the foundation of the European currency union in 1998, the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve System represent the most influential two central banks in the world. In this comparison their general structure, tasks and objectives and monetary policy instruments are contrasted. The institutions and bodies of the banks are explained in the second chapter, to see the structural differences. While the ECB defined price stability as its primary objective, the Fed has several equal objectives. These objectives and further tasks of the central banks are described in the third chapter. To steer and implement their objectives and tasks, the central banks have monetary policy instruments at disposal, whereas open market operations and the minimum reserve system play a key role. These instruments are explained in chapter 4 in general and their arrangement and implementation at the example of the ECB. Then the Feds corresponding instruments are contrasted with the ECB, because in my opinion the ECB has a role model position, in this context. Then follows an elaboration of the instruments standing facilities and discount policy. These instruments are examined in two separate subchapters, due to the fact that the implementation of these instruments is only made by the ECB or the Fed. In the last part I examined the reactions of the ECB and the Fed to compensate the risks of the current financial crisis. The attention is directed to the evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of the implemented monetary policy instruments. At the end the results are summarized.


Author : Cedric Längin
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2011-04
Page : 40
Category :
ISBN 13 : 3640889797
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,0, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, course: Effective Environmental Scanning, language: English, abstract: Since the foundation of the European currency union in 1998, the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve System represent the most influential two central banks in the world. In this comparison their general structure, tasks and objectives and monetary policy instruments are contrasted. The institutions and bodies of the banks are explained in the second chapter, to see the structural differences. While the ECB defined price stability as its primary objective, the Fed has several equal objectives. These objectives and further tasks of the central banks are described in the third chapter. To steer and implement their objectives and tasks, the central banks have monetary policy instruments at disposal, whereas open market operations and the minimum reserve system play a key role. These instruments are explained in chapter 4 in general and their arrangement and implementation at the example of the ECB. Then the Feds corresponding instruments are contrasted with the ECB, because in my opinion the ECB has a role model position, in this context. Then follows an elaboration of the instruments standing facilities and discount policy. These instruments are examined in two separate subchapters, due to the fact that the implementation of these instruments is only made by the ECB or the Fed. In the last part I examined the reactions of the ECB and the Fed to compensate the risks of the current financial crisis. The attention is directed to the evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of the implemented monetary policy instruments. At the end the results are summarized.


Author : Simone Weinert
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2004-04-14
Page : 35
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3638267857
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject Business economics - Investment and Finance, grade: 1,3 (A), Stralsund University of Applied Sciences (Economics), language: English, abstract: The following essay with the title „Central Banking – The organisation of the Fed and their politics within the last years (esp. in comparison to the ESCB)“ is part of the final examination of the course International and Baltic Finance at the University of Applied Sciences Stralsund. This paper will explain central banking in general and than have a closer look on the U.S. Federal Reserve System. After that it will have a look on the European System of Central Banks, continuing with comparing the two systems, looking for the similarities and differences. During my research I read quiet a lot of books and articles and after some time I really got interested in the topic. I really wanted to know how all this central banking works, and what kind of system (the American or the European) is the better one. But I also recognised that there are of course plenty of books, dealing with this topic, but everybody seems to have a different opinion, of what is better, what suits the society best. So while writing this essay, I tried to give back what I found interesting and what seems to be the opinion of several people. Unfortunately I could not stick to the required 3000 words, because my topic was so complex and wide, that it forced me to write some more words on it.


Author :
Publisher :
Release : 1982
Page :
Category : Finance
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : American Bankers Association. Public Education Commission
Publisher :
Release : 1922
Page :
Category : Banks and banking
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author :
Publisher :
Release : 1990
Page :
Category : Banks and banking
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author :
Publisher :
Release : 1979
Page :
Category : Finance, Public
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Claude Gnos
Louis-Philippe Rochon
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2011-01-01
Page : 368
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1849808724
Description :


While some of the chapters address the recent crisis as well as adjustments to the Basel Accord, others analyze the required changes to the conduct of monetary and fiscal policies. The distinguished authors offer an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of macroeconomics and providealternative policies to deal with a number of persistent modern-day problems.


Author :
Publisher : Macmillan International Higher Education
Release : 1976-05-01
Page : 136
Category :
ISBN 13 : 1349156493
Description :



Author : Stanyo Dinov
Publisher : Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag
Release : 2018-03-26
Page : 108
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 3828869629
Description :


Stanyo Dinov analyses and compares the three most advanced and most influential financial systems in the world, their structure, models of regulation and their actual financial legislation against the background of the global financial crisis in 2007. After a brief introduction, the first chapter is devoted to the function of the Central Banks and the two main divisions theories about the role of the CBs, namely their responsibility for monetary policy, or for monetary policy and banking supervision. The work also displays the four existing regulative approaches to financial supervision: the Institutional, the Functional, the Integrated and the Twin Peaks. The main part represents and compares the Central Banks and their regulatory structure, starting with the oldest one, the BoE. The benefits and the drawbacks of the one or the other system are outlined. In the conclusion, the most important results are presented and an ideal modal solution is suggested.


Author : Elena Sciso
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-07-08
Page : 271
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 3319578553
Description :


This book investigates the strengths and weaknesses – in terms of transparency and compliance with the democratic principle – of Bretton Woods Institutions, considering the most important innovations from the original framework achieved through the introduction of independent accountability and complaint mechanisms (the Inspection Panel and Independent Evaluation Office), but also due to relevant reforms in the internal governance of the International Monetary Fund and the new financial assistance tools. One of its main focuses is on evaluating the socio-economic impact of conditionality in the countries requiring financial assistance, acknowledging the need to strengthen social protection policies in the adjustment programs. In addition, emphasis is given to the effects of the “constitutionalization” of the Washington Consensus in the European Union, with the establishment of the so-called “Berlin-Brussels-Frankfurt Consensus.”


Author : Leon Lindberg
Charles S. Maier
Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
Release : 1985-06-01
Page : 612
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9780815723677
Description :


The inflation of the 1970s represented the greatest peacetime disruption of the Western economies since the Depression. Even as inflation receded, the recession in its wake brought more joblessness than at any time since the 1930s. The governments of industrialized nations found that the economic policies they had developed since World War II no longer assured price stability or high employment. What are the lessons of over a decade of economic difficulty? In this conference volume, which focuses on aspects of the crisis that economists often presuppose to be beyond control, the authors analyze the political and social underpinning of inflation and recession. Part 1 places the economic problems of the 1970s in the historical context of postwar development and then compares economic and political science analyses of inflation. Part 2 examines how rivalries between social groups affect inflationary processes. One chapter draws on the history of Latin American inflation to suggest the conflicts in play. Two others weigh the role of labor and industry in the formation of economic policy. And another shows how rivalry between countries, like rivalry between classes at home, permitted inflation to rise. The chapters in part 3 contest the claim that big government or big labor causes inflation. Two studies emphasize that a high degree of public expenditure does not itself lead to inflation. Further contributions explore the role of central banks and subject such concepts as the political business cycle to critical analysis. Part 4 comprises case studies about macroeconomic policymaking in four nations: Italy, Germany, Japan, and Sweden. The studies reveal what institutional attributes rendered those countries resistant to inflation or vulnerable to economic setback. In the last part, the editors pull together the findings and lay out the contemporary political feasibility of alternative approaches to macroeconomic management.


Author : Maximilian Hall
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2003-01-01
Page : 320
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1843765306
Description :


Under growing pressure from within and outside their economies, countries around the world have embarked upon wide-ranging programmes of financial reform. This handbook provides country studies of contemporary developments in financial reform in a selection of both developed and developing countries from Western Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Australia. The outcome is an account of the contemporary world-wide attempt to refashion the way in which the financial services industry (and especially the banking sector) is regulated and supervised.


Author : Charles Enoch
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2007-02-14
Page : 373
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1137001542
Description :


This book represents the latest developments and policy debate on the rapid growth of banking sector credit to the private sector, which continues to occupy the minds of academics and policymakers alike in many Central and Eastern European countries. The contributions discuss ways to assess and respond to excessive credit growth.


Author : Rhona C. Free
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release : 2010-05-14
Page : 1048
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 145226631X
Description :


Interest in economics is at an all-time high. Among the challenges facing the nation is an economy with rapidly rising unemployment, failures of major businesses and industries, and continued dependence on oil with its wildly fluctuating price. Economists have dealt with such questions for generations, but they have taken on new meaning and significance. Tackling these questions and encompassing analysis of traditional economic theory and topics as well as those that economists have only more recently addressed, 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook is a must-have reference resource. Key Features Provides highly readable summaries of theory and models in key areas of micro and macroeconomics, helpful for students trying to get a "big picture" sense of the field Includes introductions to relevant theory as well as empirical evidence, useful for readers interested in learning about economic analysis of an issue as well for students embarking on research projects Features chapters focused on cutting-edge topics with appeal for economists seeking to learn about extensions of analysis into new areas as well as new approaches Presents models in graphical format and summarizes empirical evidence in ways that do not require much background in statistics or econometrics, so as to maximize accessibility to students


Author : Einar Lie
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2020-04-23
Page : 352
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0192603868
Description :


Norges Bank has been an integrated part of Norwegian economic development from the complicated birth of the new nation-state after the Napoleonic wars to the present nouveau-richness of the Norwegian oil economy. This book traces its 200-year history, focusing on its relations with political institutions that have shaped and reshaped the bank's role since its establishment in 1816. In the first fragile years of the new nation, Norges Bank took centre stage in the discussion on how to reconstruct a collapsed monetary system, and how trust and resources should support the core financial function of the State apparatus. The financial and political role of the bank came to the fore from the late 1800s and peaked during the turbulent interwar years of the 1920s, after which the bank became the foremost defender of the monetary order and the gold standard, in bitter conflict with the emerging Labour Party. The blow that the Second World War delivered to central bank independence left the bank firmly subordinated to the Ministry of Finance. Not until 1986 was larger autonomy in monetary policy granted, and since then the bank's weight and responsibilities have continued to expand with its position as manager of the Norwegian oil fund. The bank's role has been largely defined by perceptions of what kind of financial services Norway needed, how economic policy was coordinated, and how discretionary power was distributed between the elected bodies, the executive branch, and underlying institutions with a defined mandate. The central aim of this book is to trace and explain these changes over the past two centuries.


Author : Marie Diron
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2009-01
Page : 12
Category :
ISBN 13 : 1437906591
Description :


The authors show that quantified inflation objectives, which have been adopted by many industrialized countries, can be used as rule-of-thumb forecasting devices. Remarkably, they yield smaller forecast errors than widely used forecasting models and the forecasts of professional experts. Tables and figures.


Author : United States. Congress
Publisher :
Release : 1965
Page :
Category : Law
ISBN 13 :
Description :


The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record began publication in 1873. Debates for sessions prior to 1873 are recorded in The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States (1789-1824), the Register of Debates in Congress (1824-1837), and the Congressional Globe (1833-1873)


Author : Allyn Abbott Young
Perry Mehrling
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 1999
Page : 430
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0415191556
Description :


Allyn Young is one of the central figures in the development of American economic thought, and is one of the originators of modern endogenous growth theory. This book allows full appreciation of the full extent of Young's work because many of his most significant contributions are buried in obscure journals and unsigned articles. This volume addresses this by reprinting much of Young's lost work, as well as other selected pieces that reveal the scope of his vision which encompasses two of the grand themes of economics, growth and money. The volume includes sections on: * the socialist movement * the first world war and its aftermath * money * theories of growth


Author : International Monetary Fund
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 1994-01-01
Page : 145
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1451942117
Description :


This paper analyzes the origins of the recent turbulence in government bond markets in the major industrial countries, and considers whether the role of hedge funds in that episode argues for altering present regulatory arrangements. In financial markets, it is possible for such a revision of expectations—if it is shared by all market participants—to alter asset prices almost immediately; indeed, the change in asset prices can occur without any transactions even taking place. In this case, however, trading volumes soared along with the rise in bond yields, as a broad spectrum of market participants sought to undo large positions that had been built up under the projections of a continued rise of European and US bond prices and a strengthening of the dollar against the yen and some European currencies. Although the increase in bond yields was undeniably large for such a short time period, the markets did receive new information in February and March on economic performance—especially on growth rates—and on the likely future course of macroeconomic policies.