The Federal Reserve System Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Donald R. Wells
Publisher : McFarland
Release : 2017-01-27
Page : 224
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9780786482191
Description :


The Federal Reserve banking system was created in 1913 in an effort to bring coherence to nationwide banking practices and prevent crises like the financial panic of 1907. Since it began operating in 1914, the Federal Reserve has played a crucial role in determining American financial policy and practice. It is largely an entity unto itself, operating independently, rarely subject to the political machinations of Congress or the presidency. Yet few Americans know how it works, and even fewer know anything of its history. This history of the Federal Reserve begins by giving an overview of American banking practices before the Federal Reserve's formation. The events leading to the Reserve's creation, and its early trials and tribulations, are then documented. Subsequent chapters track the Federal Reserve's history: its role during times of financial and military crisis, its relationship to each presidential administration, and the Fed's evolution as its leadership has changed over the years. The history wraps up with the Alan Greenspan era, explaining major changes in the institution's operating procedures since the 1980s. An appendix lists all members of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, from its formation until 2003.


Author : James Livingston
Publisher : Cornell University Press
Release : 2018-08-06
Page : 250
Category : History
ISBN 13 : 1501724711
Description :


The rise of corporate capitalism during the late 19th and early 20th centuries has long been a source of lively debate among historians. In Origins of the Federal Reserve System, James Livingston approaches this controversial topic from a fresh perspective, asking how, during this era, a "new order of corporation men" made itself the preeminent source of knowledge on all significant economic issues and thereby changed the character of public and political discourse in the United States. The book seeks to uncover the roots of the Federal Reserve System and to explain the awakening and articulation of class consciousness among America's urban elite, two phenomena that its author sees as inseparable. According to Livingston, the movement for banking and monetary reform that led to the creation of the Federal Reserve System played an important role in the general transition from entrepreneurial to corporate capitalism: it was during this struggle for reform that a group of business leaders first emerged as a new corporate social class. This interdisciplinary account of the social, cultural, and intellectual Origins of the Federal Reserve System offers both a discussion of the sources of modern public policy and a persuasive study of upper-class formation in the United States. The book will interest a wide audience of historians, economists, political scientists, sociologists, and others who wish to understand the rise of America's corporate elite, the class that has played a large-if not dominant-role in 20thcentury America.


Author : J. Lawrence Broz
Publisher : Cornell University Press
Release : 2018-10-18
Page : 286
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 1501722379
Description :


The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 created the infrastructure for the modern American payments system. Probing the origins of this benchmark legislation, J. Lawrence Broz finds that international factors were crucial to its conception and passage. Until its passage, the United States had suffered under one of the most inefficient payment systems in the world. Serious banking panics erupted frequently, and nominal interest rates fluctuated wildly. Structural and regulatory flaws contributed not only to financial instability at home but also to the virtual absence of the dollar in world trade and payments. Key institutional features of the Federal Reserve Act addressed both these shortcomings but it was the goal of internationalizing usage of the dollar that motivated social actors to pressure Congress for the improvements. With New York bankers in the forefront, an international coalition lobbied for a system that would reduce internal problems such as recurring panics, and simultaneously allow New York to challenge London's preeminence as the global banking center and encourage bankers to make the dollar a worldwide currency of record. To those who organized the political effort to pass the Act, Broz contends, the creation of the Federal Reserve System was first and foremost a response to international opportunities.


Author : Rik W. Hafer
Publisher : Greenwood Publishing Group
Release : 2005
Page : 451
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9780313328398
Description :


Alphabetically arranged entries provide detailed information regarding the central bank of the United States, discussing such topics as the Great Depression, hyperinflation, and redlining.


Author : Stephen H. Axilrod
Publisher : OUP USA
Release : 2013-07-25
Page : 256
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9780199934478
Description :


The Federal Reserve: What Everyone Needs to Know is about how things work in practice for the Fed: how it makes decisions, what actions it takes, and the actual effects it has on the economy and society.


Author : Ron Paul
Publisher : Grand Central Publishing
Release : 2009-09-16
Page : 224
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 044656818X
Description :


A provocative and controversial treatise that argues we cannot actually fix the broken economy without discussing the 800-lb gorilla in the room: the Federal Reserve. Most people think of the Fed as an indispensable institution without which the country's economy could not properly function. But in End the Fed, Ron Paul draws on American history, economics, and fascinating stories from his own long political life to argue that the Fed is both corrupt and unconstitutional. It is inflating currency today at nearly a Weimar or Zimbabwe level, a practice that threatens to put us into an inflationary depression where $100 bills are worthless. What most people don't realize is that the Fed -- created by the Morgans and Rockefellers at a private club off the coast of Georgia -- is actually working against their own personal interests. Congressman Paul's urgent appeal to all citizens and officials tells us where we went wrong and what we need to do fix America's economic policy for future generations.


Author : Roger Lowenstein
Publisher : Penguin
Release : 2015-10-20
Page : 368
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1101614129
Description :


A tour de force of historical reportage, America’s Bank illuminates the tumultuous era and remarkable personalities that spurred the unlikely birth of America’s modern central bank, the Federal Reserve. Today, the Fed is the bedrock of the financial landscape, yet the fight to create it was so protracted and divisive that it seems a small miracle that it was ever established. For nearly a century, America, alone among developed nations, refused to consider any central or organizing agency in its financial system. Americans’ mistrust of big government and of big banks—a legacy of the country’s Jeffersonian, small-government traditions—was so widespread that modernizing reform was deemed impossible. Each bank was left to stand on its own, with no central reserve or lender of last resort. The real-world consequences of this chaotic and provincial system were frequent financial panics, bank runs, money shortages, and depressions. By the first decade of the twentieth century, it had become plain that the outmoded banking system was ill equipped to finance America’s burgeoning industry. But political will for reform was lacking. It took an economic meltdown, a high-level tour of Europe, and—improbably—a conspiratorial effort by vilified captains of Wall Street to overcome popular resistance. Finally, in 1913, Congress conceived a federalist and quintessentially American solution to the conflict that had divided bankers, farmers, populists, and ordinary Americans, and enacted the landmark Federal Reserve Act. Roger Lowenstein—acclaimed financial journalist and bestselling author of When Genius Failed and The End of Wall Street—tells the drama-laden story of how America created the Federal Reserve, thereby taking its first steps onto the world stage as a global financial power. America’s Bank showcases Lowenstein at his very finest: illuminating complex financial and political issues with striking clarity, infusing the debates of our past with all the gripping immediacy of today, and painting unforgettable portraits of Gilded Age bankers, presidents, and politicians. Lowenstein focuses on the four men at the heart of the struggle to create the Federal Reserve. These were Paul Warburg, a refined, German-born financier, recently relocated to New York, who was horrified by the primitive condition of America’s finances; Rhode Island’s Nelson W. Aldrich, the reigning power broker in the U.S. Senate and an archetypal Gilded Age legislator; Carter Glass, the ambitious, if then little-known, Virginia congressman who chaired the House Banking Committee at a crucial moment of political transition; and President Woodrow Wilson, the academician-turned-progressive-politician who forced Glass to reconcile his deep-seated differences with bankers and accept the principle (anathema to southern Democrats) of federal control. Weaving together a raucous era in American politics with a storied financial crisis and intrigue at the highest levels of Washington and Wall Street, Lowenstein brings the beginnings of one of the country’s most crucial institutions to vivid and unforgettable life. Readers of this gripping historical narrative will wonder whether they’re reading about one hundred years ago or the still-seething conflicts that mark our discussions of banking and politics today.


Author : A. Jerome Clifford
Publisher : University of Pennsylvania Press
Release : 2016-11-11
Page : 436
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1512801348
Description :


The Federal Reserve Act became law on December 23, 1913. The need for the new monetary system for which this law provided was traceable to the frequently stated causal connection between crises and failure in the banking and currency system and crises and failure in commerce, industry, and agriculture. The supporters of the law argued that the continued prosperity and growth of the nation demanded that monetary malfunctions be cured. The powers and responsibilities given to the new system were enveloped in structural arrangements designed to assure the organization itself as well as the nation that there would be competent, adequate, and independent authority to provide for a more efficient monetary system. Although unique, the solution was not simple in either structure or operation, for besides protecting itself from the dangers of government or private ­banker domination, the Federal Reserve System had to win and keep the help and cooperation of this same government and these same private banks. The System maintained its independence in two ways. First, the Federal Reserve System found its fundamental meaning in the "governmental" function delegated to it by Congress—the formation and execution of credit and monetary policy for public purposes. Yet it was set apart from the ordinary legislative and executive departments of the government. Second, the System worked to achieve its purposes by acting through and with the cooperation of the nation's private financial interests. Yet it was separate from those interests. The Federal Reserve System was designed to cooperate and still be independent. How it promoted this harmony, and yet avoided domination was its glory and its cross. It is of the history of this achievement that this book tells.


Author : William Greider
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release : 1989-01-15
Page : 798
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0671675567
Description :


Reveals how the Federal Reserve under Paul Volcker engineered changes in America's economy


Author : Edwin Walter Kemmerer
Publisher : Franklin Classics
Release : 2018-10-12
Page : 226
Category :
ISBN 13 : 9780342627592
Description :


This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. To ensure a quality reading experience, this work has been proofread and republished using a format that seamlessly blends the original graphical elements with text in an easy-to-read typeface. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.


Author : Kevin Corder
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2014-04-08
Page : 200
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1135675295
Description :


First Published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Author : Bd of Governors of the Federal Reserve
Publisher :
Release : 2002
Page : 168
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9780894991967
Description :


Provides an in-depth overview of the Federal Reserve System, including information about monetary policy and the economy, the Federal Reserve in the international sphere, supervision and regulation, consumer and community affairs and services offered by Reserve Banks. Contains several appendixes, including a brief explanation of Federal Reserve regulations, a glossary of terms, and a list of additional publications.


Author : Henry Parker Willis
Publisher :
Release : 1923
Page : 1765
Category : Federal Reserve banks
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : Carla Högermann
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2012-08-21
Page : 13
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3656260818
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2011 in the subject Economics - Monetary theory and policy, grade: 1,7, The FOM University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, course: Advanced Business English, language: English, abstract: Since the European Monetary Union was established in 1999 the worlds political attention has been drawn to two main central banks: the European System of Central Banks and the Federal Reserve System. The legal basis of the European System of Central Banks is the Treaty establishing the European Community and the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank. Since it's estblishments the European Central Bank has played a central role in both European and global financial markets. The Federal Reserve System was signed into law by the Federal Reserve Act in 1913. Although the Federal Reserve System was established long before the European System of Central Bank there are several similarities in the ways the central banks operate and control the monetay policy of their nations. But the central banks also differ in certain ways. Whereas the Federal Reserve System was established in order to rearrange the financial system of the United States, the European System of Central Banks started business in order to create a single monetary policy. The following chapters will give a closer look into both systems and their monetary policies.


Author :
Publisher : Ludwig von Mises Institute
Release : 2007
Page : 158
Category : Federal Reserve banks
ISBN 13 : 1610164792
Description :


"By far the most secret and least accountable operation of the federal government is not, as one might expect, the CIA, DIA, or some other super-secret intelligence agency. They are accountable: a Congressional committee supervises these operations, controls their budgets, and is informed of the covert activities. It is little known that there is a federal agency that tops the others in secrecy by a country mile. The Federal Reserve System is accountable to no one; it has no budget; it is subject to no audit; and no Congressional committee knows or, or can truly supervise, its operations. The Federal Reserve, virtually in total control of the nation's vital monetary system, is accountable to nobody--and this strange situation, if acknowledged at all, is invariably trumpeted as a virtue"--Page 4 of cover.


Author : Cedric Längin
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2011-04-11
Page : 16
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 3640890175
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,0, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, course: Effective Environmental Scanning, language: English, abstract: Since the foundation of the European currency union in 1998, the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve System represent the most influential two central banks in the world. In this comparison their general structure, tasks and objectives and monetary policy instruments are contrasted. The institutions and bodies of the banks are explained in the second chapter, to see the structural differences. While the ECB defined price stability as its primary objective, the Fed has several equal objectives. These objectives and further tasks of the central banks are described in the third chapter. To steer and implement their objectives and tasks, the central banks have monetary policy instruments at disposal, whereas open market operations and the minimum reserve system play a key role. These instruments are explained in chapter 4 in general and their arrangement and implementation at the example of the ECB. Then the Feds corresponding instruments are contrasted with the ECB, because in my opinion the ECB has a role model position, in this context. Then follows an elaboration of the instruments standing facilities and discount policy. These instruments are examined in two separate subchapters, due to the fact that the implementation of these instruments is only made by the ECB or the Fed. In the last part I examined the reactions of the ECB and the Fed to compensate the risks of the current financial crisis. The attention is directed to the evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of the implemented monetary policy instruments. At the end the results are summarized.


Author : M.T. Belongia
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
Page : 278
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9401138885
Description :


When the 12 District Banks of the Federal Reserve System opened their doors for business on November 16, 1914, few observers could have foreseen the Fed's present role as a major, if not dominant, player in U. S. and world economic policymaking. After all, two previous attempts to create a central bank in this country had ended in failure. Moreover, much of the economic theory and institutional structure that have given rise to monetary policy's influence in recent years were not yet in place. Indeed, it would take the Fed more than 20 years to learn (by accident!) the power of open market operations. Clearly, the modern Federal Reserve System has found itself with powers and responsibilities that were not envisioned by its founders. These proceedings from a conference held at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis on October 19-20, 1989, examine U. S. monetary policy from a variety of perspectives: a historical review of how it has affected aggregate economic performance; a positive analysis of why the Federal Reserve has chosen particular policy strategies; a review of normative arguments about what the Fed should pursue as its policy objective; a critique of how the Fed's "output"-the flow of monetary services in the U. S. economy-is measured; and, finally, a debate over the Fed's ability to influence real economic activity by changing the nominal quantity of money in circulation.


Author : Eustace Mullins
Publisher : Lulu.com
Release : 2018-09-15
Page : 196
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0359087450
Description :


From the Foreword. In 1949, while I was visiting Ezra Pound who was a political prisoner at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Washington, D.C. (a Federal institution for the insane), Dr. Pound asked me if I had ever heard of the Federal Reserve System. I replied that I had not, as of the age of 25. He then showed me a ten dollar bill marked ""Federal Reserve Note"" and asked me if I would do some research at the Library of Congress on the Federal Reserve System which had issued this bill. Pound was unable to go to the Library himself, as he was being held without trial as a political prisoner by the United States government. After he was denied broadcasting time in the U.S., Dr. Pound broadcast from Italy in an effort to persuade people of the United States not to enter World War II. Franklin D. Roosevelt had personally ordered Pound's indictment, spurred by the demands of his three personal assistants, Harry Dexter White, Lauchlin Currie, and Alger Hiss, all connected with Communist espionage.


Author : Cedric Längin
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2011-04
Page : 40
Category :
ISBN 13 : 3640889797
Description :


Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,0, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, course: Effective Environmental Scanning, language: English, abstract: Since the foundation of the European currency union in 1998, the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve System represent the most influential two central banks in the world. In this comparison their general structure, tasks and objectives and monetary policy instruments are contrasted. The institutions and bodies of the banks are explained in the second chapter, to see the structural differences. While the ECB defined price stability as its primary objective, the Fed has several equal objectives. These objectives and further tasks of the central banks are described in the third chapter. To steer and implement their objectives and tasks, the central banks have monetary policy instruments at disposal, whereas open market operations and the minimum reserve system play a key role. These instruments are explained in chapter 4 in general and their arrangement and implementation at the example of the ECB. Then the Feds corresponding instruments are contrasted with the ECB, because in my opinion the ECB has a role model position, in this context. Then follows an elaboration of the instruments standing facilities and discount policy. These instruments are examined in two separate subchapters, due to the fact that the implementation of these instruments is only made by the ECB or the Fed. In the last part I examined the reactions of the ECB and the Fed to compensate the risks of the current financial crisis. The attention is directed to the evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of the implemented monetary policy instruments. At the end the results are summarized.


Author : Peter Conti-Brown
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2017-10-10
Page : 360
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0691178380
Description :


The independence of the Federal Reserve is considered a cornerstone of its identity, crucial for keeping monetary policy decisions free of electoral politics. But do we really understand what is meant by "Federal Reserve independence"? Using scores of examples from the Fed's rich history, The Power and Independence of the Federal Reserve shows that much common wisdom about the nation's central bank is inaccurate. Legal scholar and financial historian Peter Conti-Brown provides an in-depth look at the Fed's place in government, its internal governance structure, and its relationships to such individuals and groups as the president, Congress, economists, and bankers. Exploring how the Fed regulates the global economy and handles its own internal politics, and how the law does—and does not—define the Fed's power, Conti-Brown captures and clarifies the central bank's defining complexities. He examines the foundations of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, which established a system of central banks, and the ways that subsequent generations have redefined the organization. Challenging the notion that the Fed Chair controls the organization as an all-powerful technocrat, he explains how institutions and individuals—within and outside of government—shape Fed policy. Conti-Brown demonstrates that the evolving mission of the Fed—including systemic risk regulation, wider bank supervision, and as a guardian against inflation and deflation—requires a reevaluation of the very way the nation's central bank is structured. Investigating how the Fed influences and is influenced by ideologies, personalities, law, and history, The Power and Independence of the Federal Reserve offers a uniquely clear and timely picture of one of the most important institutions in the United States and the world.