The Fundamentals And Applications Of Light Emitting Diodes Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Sanjay J. Dhoble
Govind B. Nair
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-07-09
Page : 284
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0128231610
Description :


The Fundamentals and Applications of Light-Emitting Diodes: The Revolution in the Lighting Industry examines the evolution of LEDs, including a review of the luminescence process and background on solid state lighting. The book emphasizes phosphor-converted LEDs that are based on inorganic phosphors but explores different types of LEDs based on inorganic, organic, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials, and biomaterials. A detailed description is included about the diverse applications of LEDs in fields such as lighting, displays, horticulture, biomedicine, and digital communication, as well as challenges that must be solved before using LEDs in commercial applications. Traditional light sources are fast being replaced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fourth generation of lighting is completely dominated by LED luminaires. Apart from lighting, LEDs have extended their hold on other fields, such as digital communications, horticulture, medicine, space research, art and culture, display devices, and entertainment. The technological promises offered by LEDs have elevated them as front-runners in the lighting industry. Presents a concise overview of different types of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on inorganic phosphors, organic materials, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials, and biomaterials Includes a discussion of current and emerging applications in lighting, communications, horticulture, and medical fields Addresses fundamentals, luminescence mechanisms, and key optical materials, including synthesis methods


Author : Vinod Kumar Khanna
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-06-03
Page : 604
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 1466561092
Description :


Compared to traditional electrical filaments, arc lamps, and fluorescent lamps, solid-state lighting offers higher efficiency, reliability, and environmentally friendly technology. LED / solid-state lighting is poised to take over conventional lighting due to cost savings—there is pretty much no debate about this. In response to the recent activity in this field, Fundamentals of Solid-State Lighting: LEDs, OLEDs, and Their Applications in Illumination and Displays covers a range of solid-state devices, technologies, and materials used for lighting and displays. It also examines auxiliary but critical requirements of efficient applications, such as modeling, thermal management, reliability, and smart lighting. The book discusses performance metrics of LEDs such as efficiency, efficacy, current–voltage characteristics, optical parameters like spectral distribution, color temperature, and beam angle before moving on to luminescence theory, injection luminescence, radiative and non-radiative recombination mechanisms, recombination rates, carrier lifetimes, and related topics. This lays down the groundwork for understanding LED operation. The book then discusses energy gaps, light emission, semiconductor material, special equipment, and laboratory facilities. It also covers production and applications of high-brightness LEDs (HBLEDs) and organic LEDs (OLEDs). LEDs represent the landmark development in lighting since the invention of electric lighting, allowing us to create unique, low-energy lighting solutions, not to talk about their minor maintenance expenses. The rapid strides of LED lighting technology over the last few years have changed the dynamics of the global lighting market, and LEDs are expected to be the mainstream light source in the near future. In a nutshell, the book traces the advances in LEDs, OLEDs, and their applications, and presents an up-to-date and analytical perspective of the scenario for audiences of different backgrounds and interests.


Author : Gilbert Held
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
Page : 192
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9781420076639
Description :


Recent improvements in LED technology have made them as ubiquitous as cell phones. In fact, LEDs light up almost all cell phones screens. The technology’s myriad applications and low energy use have made it nearly impossible to get through daily chores without coming in contact with LEDs. Probable advances include increased ability of the technology to support more efficient lighting and enhanced communications. With balanced coverage of the basics and future developments, Introduction to Light Emitting Diode Technology and Applications takes you on a tour of the LED evolution. The book begins with a brief history of the effort to enable the device that generates light through modern organic LEDs and reviews the fundamentals and principles of light prior to a detailed explanation of how LEDs generate different colors. After forming this basic foundation, the book examines the key LEDs in lighting and communications. It then discusses the latest opportunities and advancements in high brightness (HB) LED technology, solid state lighting, and handheld electronic applications. As we approach a new decade the role of LEDs is literally set to explode, with organic light emitting diodes emerging as a leading next generation technology for electronic displays and lighting. Challenges still exist, including light extraction, luminosity, and white light generation, not to mention non-technical obstacles such as IP disputes and the lack of standards. This book provides a foundation for resolving these issues and developing new applications for LEDs in the promising general illumination market.


Author : Daniel J. Gaspar
Evgueni Polikarpov
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-05-15
Page : 494
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 1466515198
Description :


A Comprehensive Source for Taking on the Next Stage of OLED R&D OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes brings together key topics across the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), from fundamental chemistry and physics to practical materials science and engineering aspects to design and manufacturing factors. Experts from top academic institutions, industry, and national laboratories provide thorough, up-to-date coverage on the most useful materials, devices, and design and fabrication methods for high-efficiency lighting. The first part of the book covers all the construction materials of OLED devices, from substrate to encapsulation. For the first time in book form, the second part addresses challenges in devices and processing, including architectures and methods for new OLED lighting and display technologies. The book is suitable for a broad audience, including materials scientists, device physicists, synthetic chemists, and electrical engineers. It can also serve as an introduction for graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin films.


Author : G. Oskam
Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
Release : 2010-02
Page : 222
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 156677800X
Description :


This symposium provided a forum for current work on the electrodeposition and characterization of functional coatings and nanostructures. Central issues include the control of size and architecture and the ample choices and demands of substrate and deposited materials. The focus materials of this symposium were semiconductors, oxides and composites with e.g. ceramic nanoparticles or nanotubes.


Author : S Dutta Gupta
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-10-25
Page : 334
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9811058075
Description :


This book presents a comprehensive treatise on the advances in the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for sustainable crop production and describes the latest photomorphogenesis research findings. It introduces readers to the fundamentals and design features of LEDs applicable for plant growth and development and illustrates their advantages over the traditional lighting systems, including cost analyses. Further, it discusses a wide range of applications covering diverse areas of plant sciences relevant to controlled environment agriculture and in vitro plant morphogenesis. The chapters have been written by a team of pioneering international experts, who have made significant contributions to this emerging interdisciplinary field. The book will serve a valuable resource for graduate students, instructors, and researchers in the fields of horticulture, agricultural biotechnology, cell and developmental biology, and precision agriculture. It will also serve well professionals engaged in greenhouse and vertical farming.


Author : N. Thejo Kalyani
Hendrik Swart
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-05-15
Page : 332
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0081012497
Description :


Principles and Applications of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)explores the ways in which the development of organic semiconductor materials is opening up new applications in electronic and optoelectronic luminescent devices. The book begins by covering the principles of luminescence and the luminescent properties of organic semiconductors. It then covers the development of luminescent materials for OLEDs, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of organic versus inorganic luminescent materials. The fabrication and characterization of OLEDs is also covered in detail, including information on, and comparisons of, vacuum deposition and solution techniques. Finally, applications of OLEDs are explored, including OLEDs in solid-state lighting, colored lighting, displays and potential future applications, such as ultra-thin and flexible technologies. This book is an excellent resource both for experts and newcomers to the field of organic optoelectronics and OLEDs. It is ideal for scientists working on optical devices, lighting, display and imaging technologies, and for all those engaged in research in photonics, luminescence and optical materials. Provides a one-stop guide to OLED technology for the benefit of newcomers to the field of organic optoelectronics Comprehensively covers the luminescent properties of organic semiconductors and their development into OLED materials Offers practical information on OLED fabrication and their applications in solid-state lighting and displays, making this essential reading for optoelectronics engineers and materials scientists


Author : Johannes Karl Fink
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2017-10-31
Page : 712
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0128145102
Description :


Reactive Polymers: Fundamentals and Applications: A Concise Guide to Industrial Polymers, Third Edition introduces engineers and scientists to a range of reactive polymers and then details their applications and performance benefits. Basic principles and industrial processes are described for each class of reactive resin (thermoset), as well as additives, the curing process, applications and uses. The initial chapters are devoted to individual resin types (e.g., epoxides, cyanacrylates), followed by more general chapters on topics such as reactive extrusion and dental applications. Injection molding of reactive polymers, radiation curing, thermosetting elastomers, and reactive extrusion equipment are covered as well. The use of reactive polymers enables manufacturers to make chemical changes at a late stage in the production process, which, in turn, cause changes in performance and properties. Material selection and control of the reaction are essential to achieve optimal performance. Material new to this edition includes the most recent developments, applications and commercial products for each chemical class of thermosets, as well as sections on fabrication methods, reactive biopolymers, recycling of reactive polymers and case studies. Covers the basics and most recent developments, including reactive biopolymers, recycling of reactive polymers, nanocomposites and fluorosilicones Offers an indispensable guide for engineers and advanced students alike Provides extensive literature and patent review Reflects a thorough review of all literature published in this area since 2014 Features revised and updated chapters to reflect the latest research in reactive polymers


Author : Sheng Liu
Xiaobing Luo
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-07-05
Page : 320
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0470828404
Description :


Since the first light-emitting diode (LED) was invented by Holonyak and Bevacqua in 1962, LEDs have made remarkable progress in the past few decades with the rapid development of epitaxy growth, chip design and manufacture, packaging structure, processes, and packaging materials. LEDs have superior characteristics such as high efficiency, small size, long life, low power consumption, and high reliability. The market for white LED is growing rapidly in various applications. It has been widely accepted that white LEDs will be the fourth illumination source to substitute the incandescent, fluorescent, and high-pressure sodium lamps. With the development of LED chip and packaging technologies, the efficiency of high power white LED will broaden the application markets of LEDs while changing the lighting concepts of our lives. In LED Packaging for Lighting Applications, Professors Liu and Luo cover the full spectrum of design, manufacturing, and testing. Many concepts are proposed for the first time, and readers will benefit from the concurrent engineering and co-design approaches to advanced engineering design of LED products. One of the only books to cover LEDs from package design to manufacturing to testing Focuses on the design of LED packaging and its applications such as road lights Includes design methods and experiences necessary for LED engineers, especially optical and thermal design Introduces novel LED packaging structures and manufacturing processes, such as ASLP Covers reliability considerations, the most challenging problem for the LED industry Provides measurement and testing standards, which are critical for LED development, for both LED and LED fixtures Codes and demonstrations available from the book’s Companion Website This book is ideal for practicing engineers working in design or packaging at LED companies and graduate students preparing for work in industry. This book also provides a helpful introduction for advanced undergraduates, graduates, researchers, lighting designers, and product managers interested in the fundamentals of LED design and production. Color version of selected figures can be found at www.wiley.com/go/liu/led


Author : Sun Xiaowei
Yi Yang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
Page : 284
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 9814303917
Description :


This book focuses on the various functional properties and potential applications of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, from basic principles to our most recent discoveries. It comprises experimental analysis of various properties of ZnO nanostructures, preparation techniques, research methods, and some promising applications. The areas of focus include ZnO-based gas/biochemical sensing devices, field emitters, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, e-papers, and single-nanowire-based transistors.


Author : Mitsuhiro Koden
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-12-12
Page : 232
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 1119040485
Description :


Explains the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs for displays and lighting Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs. Key features: Covers all of the aspects necessary to the design and manufacturing of OLED displays and lighting. Explains the fundamental basic technologies and also related technologies which might contribute to the next innovation in the industry. Provides several indications for future innovation in the OLED industry. Includes coverage of OLED vacuum deposition type and solution type materials. The book is essential reading for early career engineers developing OLED devices and OLED related technologies in industrial companies, such as OLED device fabrication companies.


Author : Sanjay J. Dhoble
Govind B. Nair
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-08-15
Page : 284
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 012819605X
Description :


Traditional light sources are fast being replaced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fourth generation of lighting is completely dominated by LED luminaires. Apart from lighting, LEDs have extended its hold on other fields such as digital communications, horticulture, medical fields, space research, art and culture, display devices, entertainment, etc. The technological promises offered by LEDs have elevated it as a front-runner in the lighting industry. This book will explore the journey of LEDs for readers belonging to scientific community. This book reviews the general understanding of the luminescence process and the background of solid state lighting. It includes special emphasis on the phosphor-converted LEDs that are based on inorganic phosphors. It also explores the different types of LEDs that are based on inorganic, organic, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials and biomaterials. A detailed description has been included about the diverse applications of LEDs in fields such as lighting, displays, horticulture, biomedical and digital communication. Considerable importance has been given to discussion of the challenges that must be solved before using LEDs in commercial applications. Presents concise overview of different types of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on inorganic phosphors, organic materials, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials, and biomaterials Includes a discussion of current and emerging applications in lighting, communications, horticulture and medical fields Addresses fundamentals, luminescence mechanisms and key optical materials (including synthesis methods)


Author : Adrian Kitai
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-09-13
Page : 318
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1444318349
Description :


A textbook introducing the physical concepts required for acomprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emittingdiodes and solar cells. Semiconductor devices have made a major impact on the way wework and live. Today semiconductor p-n junction diode devices are experiencing substantial growth:solar cells are used on an unprecedented scale in the renewable energy industry; and light emitting diodes(LEDs) are revolutionizing energy efficient lighting. These twoemerging industries based on p-n junctions make a significantcontribution to the reduction in fossil fuel consumption. Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes covers the twomost important applications of semiconductor diodes - solar cells and LEDs - together with quantitative coverageof the physics of the p-n junction. _ e reader will gain a thorough understanding of p-n junctions asthe text begins with semiconductor and junction device fundamentalsand extends to the practical implementation of semiconductors inboth photovoltaic and LED devices. _ e treatment of a range of importantsemiconductor materials and device structures is also presented in a readable manner. Topics are divided into the following six chapters; • Semiconductor Physics • The PN Junction Diode • Photon Emission and Absorption • The Solar Cell • Light Emitting Diodes • Organic Semiconductors, OLEDs and Solar Cells Containing student problems at the end of each chapter andworked example problems throughout, this textbook is intended forsenior level undergraduate students doing courses in electricalengineering, physics and materials science. Researchers working onsolar cells and LED devices, and those in the electronics industrywould also benefit from the background information the bookprovides.


Author : Jian-Jang Huang
Hao-Chung Kuo
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2014-02-14
Page : 650
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0857099302
Description :


The development of nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has led to advancements in high-brightness LED technology for solid-state lighting, handheld electronics, and advanced bioengineering applications. Nitride Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) reviews the fabrication, performance, and applications of this technology that encompass the state-of-the-art material and device development, and practical nitride-based LED design considerations. Part one reviews the fabrication of nitride semiconductor LEDs. Chapters cover molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of nitride semiconductors, modern metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques and the growth of nitride-based materials, and gallium nitride (GaN)-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon technologies for LEDs. Nanostructured, non-polar and semi-polar nitride-based LEDs, as well as phosphor-coated nitride LEDs, are also discussed. Part two covers the performance of nitride LEDs, including photonic crystal LEDs, surface plasmon enhanced LEDs, color tuneable LEDs, and LEDs based on quantum wells and quantum dots. Further chapters discuss the development of LED encapsulation technology and the fundamental efficiency droop issues in gallium indium nitride (GaInN) LEDs. Finally, part three highlights applications of nitride LEDs, including liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting, infrared emitters, and automotive lighting. Nitride Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) is a technical resource for academics, physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and those working in the lighting, consumer electronics, automotive, aviation, and communications sectors. Reviews fabrication, performance, and applications of this technology that encompass the state-of-the-art material and device development, and practical nitride-based LED design considerations Covers the performance of nitride LEDs, including photonic crystal LEDs, surface plasmon enhanced LEDs, color tuneable LEDs, and LEDs based on quantum wells and quantum dots Highlights applications of nitride LEDs, including liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting, infra-red emitters, and automotive lighting


Author : Jian-Jang Huang
Hao-Chung Kuo
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-10-24
Page : 822
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 0081019432
Description :


Nitride Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs): Materials, Technologies, and Applications, Second Edition reviews the fabrication, performance and applications of the technology, encompassing the state-of-the-art material and device development, along with considerations regarding nitride-based LED design. This updated edition is based on the latest research and advances, including two new chapters on LEDs for large displays and laser lighting. Chapters cover molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of nitride semiconductors, modern metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, the growth of nitride-based materials, and gallium nitride (GaN)-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon technologies for LEDs. Nanostructured, non-polar and semi-polar nitride-based LEDs, as well as phosphor-coated nitride LEDs, are also discussed. The book also addresses the performance of nitride LEDs, including photonic crystal LEDs, surface plasmon enhanced LEDs, color tuneable LEDs, and LEDs based on quantum wells and quantum dots. Further chapters discuss the development of LED encapsulation technology and fundamental efficiency droop issues in gallium indium nitride (GaInN) LEDs. It is a technical resource for academics, physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and those working in the lighting, consumer electronics, automotive, aviation, and communications sectors. Features new chapters on laser lighting, addressing the latest advances on this topic Reviews fabrication, performance, and applications of this technology that encompass the state-of-the-art material and device development Covers the performance of nitride LEDs, including photonic crystal LEDs, surface plasmon enhanced LEDs, color tuneable LEDs, and LEDs based on quantum wells and quantum dots Highlights applications of nitride LEDs, including liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting, infra-red emitters, and automotive lighting Provides a comprehensive discussion of gallium nitride on both silicon and sapphire substrates


Author : Hadis Morkoç
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-07-30
Page : 883
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 3527628428
Description :


The three volumes of this handbook treat the fundamentals, technology and nanotechnology of nitride semiconductors with an extraordinary clarity and depth. They present all the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering together with an extensive reference section. Volume 2 addresses the electrical and optical properties of nitride materials. It includes semiconductor metal contacts, impurity and carrier concentrations, and carrier transport in semiconductors.


Author : Hadis Morkoç
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-07-30
Page : 902
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 3527628452
Description :


The three volumes of this handbook treat the fundamentals, technology and nanotechnology of nitride semiconductors with an extraordinary clarity and depth. They present all the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering together with an extensive reference section. Volume 3 deals with nitride semiconductor devices and device technology. Among the application areas that feature prominently here are LEDs, lasers, FETs and HBTs, detectors and unique issues surrounding solar blind detection.


Author : Zhe Chuan Feng
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-06-12
Page : 704
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1351647644
Description :


This handbook addresses the development of energy-efficient, environmentally friendly solid-state light sources, in particular semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) and other solid-state lighting devices. It reflects the vast growth of this field and impacts in diverse industries, from lighting to communications, biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. The chapters include coverage of nanoscale processing, fabrication of LEDs, light diodes, photodetectors and nanodevices, characterization techniques, application, and recent advances. Readers will obtain an understanding of the key properties of solid-state lighting and LED devices, an overview of current technologies, and appreciation for the challenges remaining. The handbook will be useful to material growers and evaluators, device design and processing engineers, newcomers, students, and professionals in the field.


Author : Jinmin Li
Junxi Wang
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-08-31
Page : 285
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 9811579490
Description :


The book provides an overview of III-nitride-material-based light-emitting diode (LED) technology, from the basic material physics to the latest advances in the field, such as homoepitaxy and heteroepitaxy of the materials on different substrates. It also includes the latest advances in the field, such as approaches to improve quantum efficiency and reliability as well as novel structured LEDs. It explores the concept of material growth, chip structure, packaging, reliability and application of LEDs. With spectra coverage from ultraviolet (UV) to entire visible light wavelength, the III-nitride-material-based LEDs have a broad application potential, and are not just limited to illumination. These novel applications, such as health & medical, visible light communications, fishery and horticulture, are also discussed in the book.


Author : Adrian Kitai
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-08-24
Page : 336
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN 13 : 1119975239
Description :


This textbook introduces the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. Semiconductor devices have made a major impact on the way we work and live. Today semiconductor p-n junction diode devices are experiencing substantial growth: solar cells are used on an unprecedented scale in the renewable energy industry; and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are revolutionizing energy efficient lighting. These two emerging industries based on p-n junctions make a significant contribution to the reduction in fossil fuel consumption. This book covers the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes - solar cells and LEDs - together with quantitative coverage of the physics of the p-n junction. The reader will gain a thorough understanding of p-n junctions as the text begins with semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. Treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures is also presented in a readable manner. Topics are divided into the following six chapters: • Semiconductor Physics • The PN Junction Diode • Photon Emission and Absorption • The Solar Cell • Light Emitting Diodes • Organic Semiconductors, OLEDs and Solar Cells Containing student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout, this textbook is intended for senior level undergraduate students doing courses in electrical engineering, physics and materials science. Researchers working on solar cells and LED devices, and those in the electronics industry would also benefit from the background information the book provides.