Transportation And The Belt And Road Initiative Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : Nicolas de Loisy
Publisher :
Release : 2019-06-15
Page : 288
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9789887991212
Description :


We offer 2 editions of this book: a color edition and a black & white edition (B&W). The color edition is much better to appreciate the maps, graphs and photos included in this book, while the B&W edition is cheaper. We do not offer a Kindle edition because our maps, graphs and tables are not supported by Kindle. For digital versions of the book that support our maps and tables, please go to SCMO website. --------------------------------------------- Abstract The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has received considerable critical attention from the infrastructure, political and media worlds. Most reports and articles on the subject are confused at best, when they are not completely misinformed or contradictory. To date there has been little agreement on the number of BRI projects, amounts spent, dates, and geographical distribution. A global information warfare campaign of mis-information, disinformation, and intoxication is currently at play about the BRI, which direct result is to confuse the situation even more... This book critically examines what China's BRI is about, clarifies the confusion, and answers many questions. It includes a first-time-ever-published list and statistical tables of all the BRI projects up to December 31st, 2018. A mixed-methods approach was used in the data analysis, and the theory of constraints underpins this research as a theoretical framework. BRI projects are classified by projects' name, date, status, value, country, region, industry, and transportation mode. Additional never-published-before tables describe seven transportation modes. These tables are instrumental to our understanding of the BRI and are unpacked and analyzed in great detail in one section of this book. This work also demonstrates how instrumental the BRI is to globalization, which in itself is conducive to humanity's evolution. It describes humanity's five key choke points, and apprehends how China and the BRI are addressing them. In conclusion, we share an interview with a special Chinese lady, who benefits from a long China history's oversight. She shows us the Chinese perception of China and of the world. She tells us what China's point of view and ambitions are, especially as far as the BRI is concerned. --------------------------------------------- Praise for Transportation and the Belt and Road Initiative "It is an excellent, comprehensive and detailed treatment of the Belt and Road Initiative. This book is far more useful than almost anything written on the topic." - Parag Khanna, Author of Connectography, New York, USA "This exhaustive study belongs within arm's reach on the desk and/ or nearby reference material shelf of any person or company involved in any manner, shape or form in the arena of "moving stuff"." - Joel Laykin, Secretary General of the IPPF, Hong Kong, China "I trust this book would provide a good road map for policy makers and infrastructure developers in any developing countries amidst complex geo-political circumstances." - Dr. D. J. Pandian, Vice President and Chief Investment Officer, AIIB - Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Beijing, China --------------------------------------------- This book is aimed at practitioners, scholars, and experts in: policy making, government administration, infrastructure development, BRI, civil engineering, logistics, transportation, supply chain management, sustainability, warfare, defense, military, intelligence, security, risk mitigation, law, energy, electric grid, pipeline, sea-freight, air-freight, road, rail, digital, internet, geostrategy, globalization, geopolitics, political science, business, economics, developing countries, social science, tipping points, ecosystem, water, collapse, society cycles, South China Sea, expansionism, and many more.


Author : Nicolas de Loisy
Publisher :
Release : 2020-02-10
Page : 288
Category : Transportation
ISBN 13 : 9789887991229
Description :


We offer 2 editions of this book: a color edition and a black & white edition (B&W). The color edition is much better to appreciate the maps, graphs and photos included in this book, while the B&W edition is cheaper. We do not offer a Kindle edition because our maps, graphs and tables are not supported by Kindle. For digital versions of the book that support our maps and tables, please go to SCMO website. This is the second edition of this book, with all figures and typing mistakes corrected. ---------------------------------------------AbstractThe Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has received considerable critical attention from the infrastructure, political and media worlds. Most reports and articles on the subject are confused at best, when they are not completely misinformed or contradictory. To date there has been little agreement on the number of BRI projects, amounts spent, dates, and geographical distribution. A global information warfare campaign of mis-information, disinformation, and intoxication is currently at play about the BRI, which direct result is to confuse the situation even more...This book critically examines what China's BRI is about, clarifies the confusion, and answers many questions. It includes a first-time-ever-published list and statistical tables of all the BRI projects up to December 31st, 2018. A mixed-methods approach was used in the data analysis, and the theory of constraints underpins this research as a theoretical framework. BRI projects are classified by projects' name, date, status, value, country, region, industry, and transportation mode.Additional never-published-before tables describe seven transportation modes. These tables are instrumental to our understanding of the BRI and are unpacked and analyzed in great detail in one section of this book. This work also demonstrates how instrumental the BRI is to globalization, which in itself is conducive to humanity's evolution. It describes humanity's five key choke points, and apprehends how China and the BRI are addressing them.In conclusion, we share an interview with a special Chinese lady, who benefits from a long China history's oversight. She shows us the Chinese perception of China and of the world. She tells us what China's point of view and ambitions are, especially as far as the BRI is concerned.---------------------------------------------Praise for Transportation and the Belt and Road Initiative"It is an excellent, comprehensive and detailed treatment of the Belt and Road Initiative. This book is far more useful than almost anything written on the topic." - Parag Khanna, Author of Connectography, New York, USA"This exhaustive study belongs within arm's reach on the desk and/ or nearby reference material shelf of any person or company involved in any manner, shape or form in the arena of "moving stuff"." - Joel Laykin, Secretary General of the IPPF, Hong Kong, China"I trust this book would provide a good road map for policy makers and infrastructure developers in any developing countries amidst complex geo-political circumstances." - Dr. D. J. Pandian, Vice President and Chief Investment Officer, AIIB - Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Beijing, China---------------------------------------------This book is aimed at practitioners, scholars, and experts in: policy making, government administration, infrastructure development, BRI, civil engineering, logistics, transportation, supply chain management, sustainability, warfare, defense, military, intelligence, security, risk mitigation, law, energy, electric grid, pipeline, sea-freight, air-freight, road, rail, digital, internet, geostrategy, globalization, geopolitics, political science, business, economics, developing countries, social science, tipping points, ecosystem, water, collapse, society cycles, South China Sea, expansionism, and many more.


Author : Nicolas de Loisy
Publisher :
Release : 2019-06-15
Page : 288
Category : Economic development projects
ISBN 13 : 9789887991205
Description :


We offer 2 editions of this book: a color edition and a black & white edition (B&W). The color edition is much better to appreciate the maps, graphs and photos included in this book, while the B&W edition is cheaper. We do not offer a Kindle edition because our maps, graphs and tables are not supported by Kindle. For digital versions of the book that support our maps and tables, please go to SCMO website. Abstract The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has received considerable critical attention from the infrastructure, political and media worlds. Most reports and articles on the subject are confused at best, when they are not completely misinformed or contradictory. To date there has been little agreement on the number of BRI projects, amounts spent, dates, and geographical distribution. A global information warfare campaign of mis-information, disinformation, and intoxication is currently at play about the BRI, which direct result is to confuse the situation even more... This book critically examines what China's BRI is about, clarifies the confusion, and answers many questions. It includes a first-time-ever-published list and statistical tables of all the BRI projects up to December 31st, 2018. A mixed-methods approach was used in the data analysis, and the theory of constraints underpins this research as a theoretical framework. BRI projects are classified by projects' name, date, status, value, country, region, industry, and transportation mode. Additional never-published-before tables describe seven transportation modes. These tables are instrumental to our understanding of the BRI and are unpacked and analyzed in great detail in one section of this book. This work also demonstrates how instrumental the BRI is to globalization, which in itself is conducive to humanity's evolution. It describes humanity's five key choke points, and apprehends how China and the BRI are addressing them. In conclusion, we share an interview with a special Chinese lady, who benefits from a long China history's oversight. She shows us the Chinese perception of China and of the world. She tells us what China's point of view and ambitions are, especially as far as the BRI is concerned. Praise for Transportation and the Belt and Road Initiative "It is an excellent, comprehensive and detailed treatment of the Belt and Road Initiative. This book is far more useful than almost anything written on the topic." - Parag Khanna, Author of Connectography, New York, USA "This exhaustive study belongs within arm's reach on the desk and/ or nearby reference material shelf of any person or company involved in any manner, shape or form in the arena of "moving stuff"." - Joel Laykin, Secretary General of the IPPF, Hong Kong, China "I trust this book would provide a good road map for policy makers and infrastructure developers in any developing countries amidst complex geo-political circumstances." - Dr. D. J. Pandian, Vice President and Chief Investment Officer, AIIB - Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Beijing, China Readership This book is aimed at practitioners, scholars, and experts in: policy making, government administration, infrastructure development, BRI, civil engineering, logistics, transportation, supply chain management, sustainability, warfare, defense, military, intelligence, security, risk mitigation, law, energy, electric grid, pipeline, sea-freight, air-freight, road transportation, rail transportation, digital world, internet, geostrategy, globalization, geopolitics, political science, business, economics, developing nations, social science, tipping points, ecosystem, water, collapse, society cycles, South China Sea, expansionism, and many more.


Author : Yining Li
Yifu Lin
Publisher : Royal Collins Publishing Company
Release : 2020-01-03
Page : 324
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9781487800970
Description :


The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an ambitious program aimed at building greater global cooperation through mutually beneficial construction, educational, and cultural projects. First proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping in late 2013 and later fully implemented by the Chinese government, the BRI envisions a massive road, railway, shipping, and air transportation network that will foster freer trade between countries along the Belt and Road. Modeled on the transportation routes of the ancient Silk Road and the Maritime Silk and Porcelain Road, the BRI includes countries in East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia, Africa, and Europe. China hopes to continue to expand the scope of the initiative, opening it to any nation in the world that wants to participate in this expansive vision of free trade that is free of ideological constraints. In its fullest form, the BRI will see construction projects in developing nations that make use of both financial aid and the surplus production in more advanced countries like China, with technical expertise and know-how being provided by developed nations. At present, the greatest support for the initiative is coming from Asia and Africa, with moderate support coming from Eastern Europe. It is hoped that greater communication of the goals of the initiative, such as is provided in the essays contained in this volume, will help more developed countries in North America and Western Europe understand the goal and lend their support through technical guidance and assistance, as well as financial investments. It is nearly five years since the first announcement of the Belt and Road Initiative, and in that time many new projects have been undertaken in numerous locations. If the next five years sees similar growth, the dream of a world in which trade and cultural exchange is freer and more equitable will be much more achievable than it is today. The essays included in this collection aim to help make the agendas and goals of the BRI clearer to everyone, and to help bring the dream to fruition.


Author : Hing Kai Chan
Faith Ka Shun Chan
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-27
Page : 299
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9811531331
Description :


This edited volume brings together a wide range of academics to engage with inter-disciplinary research perspectives in response to the development of The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) which opens unparalleled opportunities to gain access to new markets in Asia, Europe and Africa. The collection examines opportunities offered in key areas such as trade and investment, policy coordination, facilities connectivity and cultural exchange. It also notably considers how the historical, environmental, cultural and political background to the BRI impacts this hugely ambitious plan which has been described as the ‘new Silk Road', as well as the challenges across these spheres in a part of the world which has witnessed much instability historically.


Author : World Bank
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2019-08-16
Page : 156
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1464814651
Description :


China proposed the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013 to improve connectivity and cooperation on a transcontinental scale. This study, by a team of World Bank Group economists led by Michele Ruta, analyzes the economics of the initiative. It assesses the connectivity gaps between economies along the initiative’s corridors, examines the costs and economic effects of the infrastructure improvements proposed under the initiative, and identifies complementary policy reforms and institutions that will support welfare maximization and mitigation of risks for participating economies.


Author : Cai Fang
Peter Nolan
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-05-22
Page : 618
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0429515057
Description :


Chinese President Xi Jinping announced the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013, a development strategy involving infrastructure development and investments in countries in Europe, Asia and Africa. It has rapidly turned into action, reflected in the establishment of a series of international cooperation mechanisms, landing of cooperation projects, and harvest of some early results. The influence is huge, and controversy is not unexpected. As one of the most frequently mentioned concepts in the official media, how does the “bid to enhance regional connectivity” construct a unified large market through cultural exchange and integration in practice? What is the status quo of building an innovative pattern with capital inflows, talent pool, and technology database? Routledge Handbook of the Belt and Road is an initial review of the theory and practice of BRI, and is the first handbook of its kind. Contributors are leading subject researchers, aiming to reflect the original intentions and principles, history and current situation, basic knowledge and latest studies. A total of 117 entries related to the BRI have been included, organised into 12 clear parts covering the following key topics: • China’s reform and opening-up and formation of the BRI • Backstory, concept and framework • The five roads and six economic corridors • Foreign affairs with Chinese characteristics • International action plans relevant and similar to the BRI • Case studies of the BRI implementation and promotion Routledge Handbook of the Belt and Road is an essential guide for researchers, practitioners and observers involved in the BRI construction. Global think tanks, media practitioners and universities will also find the book a useful reference.


Author : Dominik Mierzejewski
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2021-03-30
Page : 288
Category : Social Science
ISBN 13 : 1000374491
Description :


This book discusses the Belt and Road Initiative at the provincial level in China. It analyses the evolution of the role of local governments in Chinese foreign policy since the opening of China’s economy in 1978, showing how the provinces initially competed with each other, and how the central government was forced to react, developing more centralised policies. Unlike other books on the Belt and Road Initiative, which focus on the international aspects of the initiative, this book demonstrates the importance of the Belt and Road in reinforcing China’s unitary status and for managing and coordinating development at the local level as well as centre-province relations and province to province relations inside China.


Author : David De Cremer
Bruce McKern
Publisher : SAGE Publishing India
Release : 2019-12-09
Page : 452
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9353287936
Description :


In 2013, China’s President Xi Jinping launched what is now known as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Since then, the initiative has instilled apprehension, enthusiasm and uncertainty around the globe in equal measure. The Belt and Road Initiative: Opportunities and Challenges of a Chinese Economic Ambition strives to reflect upon and synthesize the challenges and opportunities faced by China and indeed the rest of the world pertaining to the implementation of such an ambitious project. It covers perspectives from regions both in and around Asia, as well as from Europe, the United States and Africa. In addition to this, the initiative is discussed through the lens of various disciplines such as geo-politics, marketing, currency, finance, leadership, negotiation, security and the digital component of the Silk Road. The resulting compilation provides for a thoroughly extensive and pluralistic examination of the BRI, lending the reader a peek into what the world may anticipate from China and this project in the years to come.


Author : Fei Xu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-07-24
Page : 204
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9811311056
Description :


Addressing the unprecedented international interest in China’s high-speed railways, this book adopts a global perspective to examine the success of the system and probes into its going-global strategy in the context of the “Belt and Road” initiative, providing readers around the world a better understanding of infrastructure construction under the “Belt and Road” plan, as well as the global vision of communication and mutual exchange and prosperity among the countries along the Belt and Road route. The previous American President, Barack Obama, once told President Xi Jinping that there were two things about China that he particularly admired: the high-speed railway system, and the mathematics education. "The Belt and Road, and the Global Strategy of China’s High-speed Rail" provides scholarly researchers and those generally interested in China's High-speed rail excellent insight into this impressive and rapid development.


Author : Liu, Wei
Zhang, Zhe
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2019-04-12
Page : 273
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 1522584412
Description :


International business strategies orbit around the idea of strengthening partnerships with other countries. Developing new and innovative opportunities to connect neighboring countries bodes well for those countries and the entire world. The Belt and Road Strategy intends to do just that by strengthening partnerships and constructing a comprehensive and multilevel interconnected network to achieve pluralistic, independent, balanced, and sustainable development. The Belt and Road Strategy in International Business and Administration is a vital collection of information that discusses one of most important programs embodying economic, regional, and political demands in the Asian and European environment. Featuring research on topics such as business development, business law, and multinational enterprise, this book is ideally designed for government officials, professionals, researchers, students, and professors seeking coverage on the theoretical and practical contributions of international business.


Author : Francisco José B. S. Leandro
Paulo Afonso B. Duarte
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-03
Page : 553
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9811525641
Description :


This book is an analysis of the developments associated with the Belt and Road Initiative (B&RI) five years after Xi Jinping announced both the Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) and the 21st Maritime Silk Road (21MSR). Together, these two dimensions constitute the B&RI, providing the so-called Chinese ‘project of the century’ with regional, inter-regional and global reach. This book aims at assessing the impact of the B&RI in all these dimensions and levels of influence. This is a current and promising theme, not only in the short and medium terms, but also within a broader timescale, reflecting Chinese strategic thinking itself, since Chinese philosophy and culture are oriented towards long-term and inter-generational perspectives. Likewise, both the title of this publication and the way it has been organized result from the empirical perception that China asserts a conservative attitude towards foreign affairs, redesigned in multiple dimensions, to create a perception of domestic unity and global prestige. In this vein of thought, the B&RI is already influencing and will continue to influence, directly or indirectly, the current economic and political order.


Author : Jeremy Garlick
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-11-15
Page : 250
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 1351182749
Description :


This book merges macro- and micro-level analysis of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to dissect China’s aim in creating an integrated Eurasian continent through this single mega-project. BRI has been the source of much interest and confusion, as established frameworks of analysis seek to understand China’s intentions behind the policy. China’s international activity in the early 21st century has not yet been successfully theorised by IR scholars because of a failure to satisfactorily encompass its complexity. In addition, the mix-and-match syncretism of the Chinese approach to foreign policy has been under-emphasised or omitted in many analyses. Bringing together complexity thinking and analytic eclecticism to assess the degree to which this scheme can transform international relations, Garlick critically examines this large-scale interconnectivity project and its potential impacts. The book will be of interest to scholars and practitioners in the field of international relations and China studies including academics, policy-makers and diplomats around the world.


Author : Zou Lei
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2018-05-04
Page : 404
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9813222670
Description :


Silk Road was once the most important economic-cultural tie connecting the Eurasian countries before the rise of the West. In September 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping put forward the initiative to jointly build the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road, which is abbreviated as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This book analyzes the BRI through the approach of political economy and establishes the analytic framework of BRI from historical and comparative perspectives. It clearly displays the strategic considerations, future vision, constructing framework, governmental actions, latest achievements, multiple opportunities and potential risks of BRI. As China's grand national development strategy and international cooperation initiative, the BRI will largely shape China's domestic and foreign policies in the Xi Jinping era. The book is the first academic monograph on the BRI and it enables readers to comprehensively understand this initiative and its implications to China, Eurasia and the world. Contents: Reflections on the Ancient Silk Road The "Modern Silk Road" between China and the Middle East Understanding China's Belt and Road Initiative in the New Era Cooperation Framework of Building the Belt and Road Development Opportunities of the Belt and Road Initiative Government Actions on Building the Belt and Road New Developments of Building the Belt and Road Risk Management in Building of the Belt and Road Readership: Academics, policy-makers, professionals, undergraduate and graduate students interested in China's Belt and Road Initiatives, China's domestic and foreign policies in Xi Jinping Era. Keywords: China;The Belt and Road Initiative;Silk Road;One Belt and One Road;Political Economy;EurasiaReview: Key Features: First monograph on China's Belt and Road Initiative Comprehensive and in-depth studies Rich first-hand materials


Author : Keyuan Zou
Publisher : BRILL
Release : 2020-03-02
Page : 238
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 9004422056
Description :


The Belt and Road Initiative and the Law of the Sea offers insightful discussions on the use of oceans in the context of the Belt and Road Initiative covering navigational safety, marine energy and sea ports, maritime law enforcement and access of landlocked states to the sea.


Author : Huping Shang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-06-27
Page : 169
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 9811392013
Description :


This book introduces the “Belt and Road” in its entirety, including what it is, what it aims to do, what it can do and how. This book can serve as a helpful resource for the general public, it can improve their understanding about the “Belt and Road” and its relative economics, policy, culture and so on. Also, this book is good reading for academics, as well as students of public management, politics, finance and economics. The “Belt and Road” advances a whole complementary set of new ideas on international cooperation. Conforming to the principles of peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit, it stipulates policy coordination, facilitates connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration and people-to-people bonds as the five major contents, and promotes practical cooperation in all fields. It also works to build an open and win-win regional community featuring mutual political trust, economic integration and cultural inclusiveness.


Author : Simelane, Thokozani
Managa, Lavhelesani R.
Publisher : Africa Institute of South Africa
Release : 2018-11-02
Page : 40
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN 13 : 0798305266
Description :


China’s emphasis on infrastructure development has received support from African leaders. Its focus on infrastructure development in Africa was endorsed by the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between China and the African Union on 27 January 2015. The agreement outline plans for connecting African countries through transportation infrastructure projects, including modern highways, airports, and high speed railways. At the heart of Belt and Road Initiative lies the creation of an economic land belt that includes countries on the original Silk Road through Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe, as well as a maritime “road” that links China’s port facilities with the African coast, pushing up through the Suez Canal into the Mediterranean. China has from the outset emphasised that the Belt and Road Initiative will be developed within the framework of the five principles. These entails mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; non-aggression; non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; equality and mutual benefit; and peaceful coexistence. This volume provides an analysis of this stance by both African and Chinese scholars. Africa through its Agenda 2063 has been driving, among others, the re-industrialisation of its economies, improved connectivity and infrastructure development, diversification of energy sources, technology transfer and skills development. The Belt and Road Initiative provides an alternative path for Africa to realise some of these milestones.


Author : Permanent Forum of China Construction Law
Publisher :
Release : 2019-08-22
Page : 264
Category : China
ISBN 13 : 9789403514406
Description :


The Belt and Road Initiative', written by prominent adjudicators, lawyers, scholars, entrepreneurs and consultants with extensive first-hand experience in global construction matters, will assist Chinese contractors in identifying, managing and mitigating the inherent risks involved, including those arising from the political, social, economic and legal contexts of the foreign jurisdiction. With the development of global economic integration and the implementation of China?s ?going global? strategy, more and more Chinese enterprises have begun to expand their businesses to overseas markets. The ?Belt and Road? initiative designed to enhance trade flows and spur long-term regional economic growth through infrastructure projects, has expanded China?s overseas construction market.


Author : Maria Adele Carrai
Jean-Christophe Defraigne
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2020-02-28
Page : 288
Category : Law
ISBN 13 : 1789906229
Description :


This timely book examines the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), assessing its effect on the international economic order and global governance more broadly. Through a variety of qualitative case studies, the book investigates the implementation of the BRI and evaluates its development outcomes both for China and the countries it interacts with under the initiative, along with its international implications.


Author : Alessia Amighini (a cura di)
Publisher : Edizioni Epoké
Release : 2017-07-11
Page : 150
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 8899647631
Description :


Officially announced by Xi Jinping in 2013, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has since become the centrepiece of China’s economic diplomacy. It is a commitment to ease bottlenecks to Eurasian trade by improving and building networks of connectivity across Central and Western Asia, where the BRI aims to act as a bond for the projects of regional cooperation and integration already in progress in Southern Asia. But it also reaches out to the Middle East as well as East and North Africa, a truly strategic area where the Belt joins the Road. Europe, the end-point of the New Silk Roads, both by land and by sea, is the ultimate geographic destination and political partner in the BRI. This report provides an in-depth analysis of the BRI, its logic, rationale and implications for international economic and political relations.