Understanding Climate Change Feedbacks Download Ebook PDF Epub Online

Author : National Research Council
Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-01-02
Page : 166
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0309090725
Description :


During the past decade, scientists have learned much about the complex natural processes that influence climate variability and change, and our ability to model climate has increased significantly. We also have begun to better identify those parts of the climate system that are particularly important and not well understood and that therefore limit our ability to project the future evolution of Earth’s climate. One of these critical areas is our understanding of the role of feedbacks in the climate system and their role in determining climate sensitivity. Feedbacks are processes in the climate system that can either amplify or dampen the system’s response to changed forcings. This study looks at what is known and not known about climate change feedbacks and seeks to identify the feedback processes most in need of improved understanding. It identifies key observations needed to monitor and understand climate feedbacks, discusses ways to evaluate progress in understanding climate feedbacks, recommends ways to improve climate modeling and analysis for climate feedbacks research, and identifies priority areas for research.


Author : National Research Council (U.S.)
Publisher :
Release : 2003
Page : 152
Category :
ISBN 13 :
Description :



Author : The Royal Society
National Academy of Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2014-02-26
Page : 36
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0309302021
Description :


Climate Change: Evidence and Causes is a jointly produced publication of The US National Academy of Sciences and The Royal Society. Written by a UK-US team of leading climate scientists and reviewed by climate scientists and others, the publication is intended as a brief, readable reference document for decision makers, policy makers, educators, and other individuals seeking authoritative information on the some of the questions that continue to be asked. Climate Change makes clear what is well-established and where understanding is still developing. It echoes and builds upon the long history of climate-related work from both national academies, as well as on the newest climate-change assessment from the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It touches on current areas of active debate and ongoing research, such as the link between ocean heat content and the rate of warming.


Author : Sarah Burch
Sara E. Harris
Publisher : University of Toronto Press
Release : 2021-06-01
Page : 280
Category : Nature
ISBN 13 : 1487518390
Description :


Conversations about climate change are filled with challenges involving complex data, deeply held values, and political issues. Understanding Climate Change examines climate change as both a scientific and a public policy issue. Sarah L. Burch and Sara E. Harris explain the basics of the climate system, climate models and prediction, and human and biophysical impacts, as well as strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The second edition has been fully updated throughout, including coverage of new advances in climate modelling and of the shifting landscape of renewable energy production and distribution. A brand new chapter discusses global governance, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement, as well as mitigation efforts at the national and subnational levels. This new chapter makes the book even more relevant to climate change courses housed in social sciences departments such as political science and geography. An effective and integrated introduction to an urgent and controversial issue, this book is well-suited to adoption in a variety of introductory climate change courses found in a number of science and social science departments. Its ultimate goal is to equip readers with the tools needed to become constructive participants in the human response to climate change.


Author : S. K. Jalota
B. B. Vashisht
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-02-19
Page : 234
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0128097213
Description :


Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Crop Productivity and Water examines the greenhouse gas emissions and their warming effect, climate change projections, crop productivity and water. The book explores the most important greenhouse gases that influence the climate system, technical terms associated with climate projections, and the different mechanisms impacting crop productivity and water balance. Adaptive and mitigative strategies are proposed to cope with negative effects of climate change in particular domains. This book will help researchers interested in climate change impacts on the atmosphere, soil and plants. Uncovers links between climate change and its impact on crop and water outputs Integrates information on greenhouse gas cycles and mathematical equations into climate/crop models for analysis and seasonal prediction systems Provides strategies for efficient resource management and sustainable crop production in future Helps researchers interested in climate change impacts on the atmosphere, soil and plants


Author : National Research Council
Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2001-07-28
Page : 42
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0309075742
Description :


The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee of the National Research Council, characterizes the global warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming may be attributable to human activity.


Author : Nicholas Schneider
Publisher : The Fraser Institute
Release : 2008-02
Page : 30
Category : Climatic changes
ISBN 13 : 0889752338
Description :


Understanding Climate Change aims to provide a comprehensive but easily readable summary of the current state of climate change science.


Author : Spencer R. Weart
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2008-10-31
Page : 240
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0674268296
Description :


The award-winning book is now revised and expanded. In 2001 an international panel of distinguished climate scientists announced that the world was warming at a rate without precedent during at least the last ten millennia, and that warming was caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases from human activity. The story of how scientists reached that conclusion—by way of unexpected twists and turns—was the story Spencer Weart told in The Discovery of Global Warming. Now he brings his award-winning account up to date, revised throughout to reflect the latest science and with a new conclusion that shows how the scientific consensus caught fire among the general world public, and how a new understanding of the human meaning of climate change spurred individuals and governments to action.


Author : National Research Council
Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2005-03-25
Page : 222
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780309133500
Description :


Changes in climate are driven by natural and human-induced perturbations of the Earth’s energy balance. These climate drivers or "forcings" include variations in greenhouse gases, aerosols, land use, and the amount of energy Earth receives from the Sun. Although climate throughout Earth’s history has varied from "snowball" conditions with global ice cover to "hothouse" conditions when glaciers all but disappeared, the climate over the past 10,000 years has been remarkably stable and favorable to human civilization. Increasing evidence points to a large human impact on global climate over the past century. The report reviews current knowledge of climate forcings and recommends critical research needed to improve understanding. Whereas emphasis to date has been on how these climate forcings affect global mean temperature, the report finds that regional variation and climate impacts other than temperature deserve increased attention.


Author : Edmond A. Mathez
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2009-05-08
Page : 344
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0231146426
Description :


Climate Change is geared toward a variety of students and general readers who seek the real science behind global warming. Exquisitely illustrated, the text introduces the basic science underlying both the natural progress of climate change and the effect of human activity on the deteriorating health of our planet. Noted expert and author Edmond A. Mathez synthesizes the work of leading scholars in climatology and related fields, and he concludes with an extensive chapter on energy production, anchoring this volume in economic and technological realities and suggesting ways to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Climate Change opens with the climate system fundamentals: the workings of the atmosphere and ocean, their chemical interactions via the carbon cycle, and the scientific framework for understanding climate change. Mathez then brings the climate of the past to bear on our present predicament, highlighting the importance of paleoclimatology in understanding the current climate system. Subsequent chapters explore the changes already occurring around us and their implications for the future. In a special feature, Jason E. Smerdon, associate research scientist at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, provides an innovative appendix for students.


Author : Michael Stephenson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-03-20
Page : 206
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0128120223
Description :


Energy and Climate Change: An Introduction to Geological Controls, Interventions and Mitigations examines the Earth system science context of the formation and use of fossil fuel resources, and the implications for climate change. It also examines the historical and economic trends of fossil fuel usage and the ways in which these have begun to affect the natural system (i.e., the start of the Anthropocene). Finally, the book examines the effects we might expect in the future looking at evidence from the "deep time" past, and looks at ways to mitigate climate change by using negative emissions technology (e.g. bioenergy and carbon capture and storage, BECCS), but also by adapting to perhaps a higher than "two degree world," particularly in the most vulnerable, developing countries. Energy and Climate Change is an essential resource for geoscientists, climate scientists, environmental scientists, and students; as well as policy makers, energy professionals, energy statisticians, energy historians and economists. Provides an overarching narrative linking Earth system science with an integrated approach to energy and climate change Includes a unique breadth of coverage from modern to "deep time" climate change; from resource geology to economics; from climate change mitigation to adaptation; and from the industrial revolution to the Anthropocene Readable, accessible, and well-illustrated, giving the reader a clear overview of the topic


Author : Bill Gates
Publisher : Knopf Canada
Release : 2021-02-16
Page : 240
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0735280452
Description :


NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER NATIONAL BESTSELLER In this urgent, singularly authoritative book, Bill Gates sets out a wide-ranging, practical--and accessible--plan for how the world can get to zero greenhouse gas emissions in time to avoid an irreversible climate catastrophe. Bill Gates has spent a decade investigating the causes and effects of climate change. With the help and guidance of experts in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, political science and finance, he has focused on exactly what must be done in order to stop the planet's slide toward certain environmental disaster. In this book, he not only gathers together all the information we need to fully grasp how important it is that we work toward net-zero emissions of greenhouse gases but also details exactly what we need to do to achieve this profoundly important goal. He gives us a clear-eyed description of the challenges we face. He describes the areas in which technology is already helping to reduce emissions; where and how the current technology can be made to function more effectively; where breakthrough technologies are needed, and who is working on these essential innovations. Finally, he lays out a concrete plan for achieving the goal of zero emissions--suggesting not only policies that governments should adopt, but what we as individuals can do to keep our government, our employers and ourselves accountable in this crucial enterprise. As Bill Gates makes clear, achieving zero emissions will not be simple or easy to do, but by following the guidelines he sets out here, it is a goal firmly within our reach.


Author : National Research Council
Policy and Global Affairs
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1999-10-14
Page : 616
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0309064201
Description :


How can we understand and rise to the environmental challenges of global change? One clear answer is to understand the science of global change, not solely in terms of the processes that control changes in climate and the composition of the atmosphere, but in how ecosystems and human society interact with these changes. In the last two decades of the twentieth century, a number of such research efforts--supported by computer and satellite technology--have been launched. Yet many opportunities for integration remain unexploited, and many fundamental questions remain about the earth's capacity to support a growing human population. This volume encourages a renewed commitment to understanding global change and sets a direction for research in the decade ahead. Through case studies the book explores what can be learned from the lessons of the past 20 years and what are the outstanding scientific questions. Highlights include: Research imperatives and strategies for investigators in the areas of atmospheric chemistry, climate, ecosystem studies, and human dimensions of global change. The context of climate change, including lessons to be gleaned from paleoclimatology. Human responses to--and forcing of--projected global change. This book offers a comprehensive overview of global change research to date and provides a framework for answering urgent questions.


Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-01-20
Page : 716
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0309467578
Description :


We live on a dynamic Earth shaped by both natural processes and the impacts of humans on their environment. It is in our collective interest to observe and understand our planet, and to predict future behavior to the extent possible, in order to effectively manage resources, successfully respond to threats from natural and human-induced environmental change, and capitalize on the opportunities â€" social, economic, security, and more â€" that such knowledge can bring. By continuously monitoring and exploring Earth, developing a deep understanding of its evolving behavior, and characterizing the processes that shape and reshape the environment in which we live, we not only advance knowledge and basic discovery about our planet, but we further develop the foundation upon which benefits to society are built. Thriving on Our Changing Planet presents prioritized science, applications, and observations, along with related strategic and programmatic guidance, to support the U.S. civil space Earth observation program over the coming decade.


Author : Thomas M. Cronin
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2010
Page : 441
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 0231144946
Description :


"When combined with computer model simulations, paleoclimatic reconstructions are used to test hypotheses about the causes of climatic change, such as greenhouse gases, solar variability, earth's orbital variations, and hydrological, oceanic, and tectonic processes, This book is a comprehensive, state-of-the art synthesis of paleoclimate research covering all geological timescales, emphasizing topics that shed light on modern trends in the earth's climate." --Book Jacket.


Author : National Research Council
Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2002-04-23
Page : 252
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780309133043
Description :


The climate record for the past 100,000 years clearly indicates that the climate system has undergone periodic--and often extreme--shifts, sometimes in as little as a decade or less. The causes of abrupt climate changes have not been clearly established, but the triggering of events is likely to be the result of multiple natural processes. Abrupt climate changes of the magnitude seen in the past would have far-reaching implications for human society and ecosystems, including major impacts on energy consumption and water supply demands. Could such a change happen again? Are human activities exacerbating the likelihood of abrupt climate change? What are the potential societal consequences of such a change? Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises looks at the current scientific evidence and theoretical understanding to describe what is currently known about abrupt climate change, including patterns and magnitudes, mechanisms, and probability of occurrence. It identifies critical knowledge gaps concerning the potential for future abrupt changes, including those aspects of change most important to society and economies, and outlines a research strategy to close those gaps. Based on the best and most current research available, this book surveys the history of climate change and makes a series of specific recommendations for the future.


Author : A. J. McMichael
D. H. Campbell-Lendrum
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2003
Page : 322
Category : Health & Fitness
ISBN 13 : 9789241562485
Description :


This publication, prepared jointly by the WHO, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, considers the public health challenges arising from global climate change and options for policy responses, with particular focus on the health sector. Aspects discussed include: an overview of historical developments and recent scientific assessments; weather and climate change; population vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of public health systems; the IPCC Third Assessment report; tasks for public health scientists; the health impacts of climate extremes; climate change, infectious diseases and the level of disease burdens; ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation and health; and methodological issues in monitoring health effects of climate change.


Author : Dennis L. Hartmann
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 1994-07-06
Page : 411
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 9780080571638
Description :


Global Physical Climatology is an introductory text devoted to the fundamental physical principles and problems of climate sensitivity and change. Addressing some of the most critical issues in climatology, this text features incisive coverage of topics that are central to understanding orbital parameter theory for past climate changes, and for anthropogenic and natural causes of near-future changes-- Key Features * Covers the physics of climate change * Examines the nature of the current climate and its previous changes * Explores the sensitivity of climate and the mechanisms by which humans are likely to produce near-future climate changes * Provides instructive end-of-chapter exercises and appendices


Author : Sarah E. Cornell
I. Colin Prentice
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2012-08-09
Page :
Category : Science
ISBN 13 : 1139560549
Description :


Explaining the what, the how and the why of climate science, this multidisciplinary new book provides a review of research from the last decade, illustrated with cutting-edge data and observations. A key focus is the development of analysis tools that can be used to demonstrate options for mitigating and adapting to increasing climate risks. Emphasis is given to the importance of Earth system feedback mechanisms and the role of the biosphere. The book explains advances in modelling, process understanding and observations, and the development of consistent and coherent studies of past, present and 'possible' climates. This highly illustrated, data-rich book is written by leading scientists involved in QUEST, a major UK-led research programme. It forms a concise and up-to-date reference for academic researchers or students in the fields of climatology, Earth system science and ecology, and also a vital resource for professionals and policymakers working on any aspect of global change.


Author : Stephen H. Schneider
Publisher : Island Press
Release : 2002-08-01
Page : 584
Category : Political Science
ISBN 13 : 9781597268424
Description :


Questions surrounding the issue of climate change are evolving from "Is it happening?" to "What can be done about it?" The primary obstacles to addressing it at this point are not scientific but political and economic; nonetheless a quick resolution is unlikely.Ignorance and confusion surrounding the issue -- including a lack of understanding of climate science, its implications for the environmand society, and the range of policy options available -- contributes to the political morass over dealing with climate change in which we find ourselves. Climate Change Policy addresses that situation by bringing together a wide range of new writings from leading experts that examine the many dimensions of the topics mimportant in understanding climate change and policies to combat it. Chapters consider: climate science in historical perspective analysis of uncertainties in climate science and policy the economics of climate policy North-South and intergenerational equity issues the role of business and industry in climate solutions policy mechanisms including joint implementation, emissions trading, and the so-called clean developmmechanism Regardless of the fate of the Kyoto Protocol, the issues raised in that debate will persist as new climate protection regimes emerge; this volume treats mof those topics. Tying the chapters together is a shared conclusion that climate change is a real and serious problem, and that we as a society have an obligation not merely to adapt to it but to mitigate it in whatever intelligways we can develop. Cost-effectiveness is not disdained, but neither is the imperative for valuing species threatened by rapid climate change.